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Department of Linguistics 



University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 



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June 1996 — August 1997 



TH EL/BRAf?VOFTHE 

OCT 2 3 1997 

URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 



Department of Linguistics 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 



ftefatfletter 



June 1996 — August 1997 



Editor 
Jerry L. Morgan 



Assistant Editor 
Cathy Huffman 



With the aid of 
Beth Creek and Tassilo Homolatsch 



CONTENTS 

Notes from the Department Head 1 

Department of Linguistics Personnel, 1996-97 2 

Faculty 2 

Emeritus Faculty 3 

Leaves of Absence 3 

Appointments Outside the Department 3 

Cooperating Faculty 4 

Lecturers 5 

Visiting Faculty 6 

Teaching Associates 6 

Teaching Assistants 6 

Graduate Assistants 6 

Secretarial Staff 6 

Honors and Recognitions 6 

Incomplete List of Teachers Ranked as Excellent by their Students 6 

Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi 7 

Fellowship Recipients 7 

Tuition and Fee Waiver Recipients 7 

Departmental Awards 7 

Silver Jubilee Award for Outstanding Teaching Assistant in Linguistics 7 

Henry R. Kahane Award for Outstanding Teaching Assistant in 7 

Non-Western Languages 

Outstanding Undergraduate Student 7 

Departmental Distinction 7 

Graduate Students 8 

Undergraduate Majors 8 

Degrees Awarded 8 

BA. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 8 

MA. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 9 

Ph.D. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 9 

Ph.D. Dissertation Abstracts 9 

Student Progress 20 

Students Who Passed the Qualifying Examination 20 

Students Admitted to the Ph.D. Program 20 

Ph.D. Preliminary Examinations Passed 20 

Ph.D. Dissertations Defended 20 

Ph.D. Dissertations in Progress 21 

Research and Service 23 

New Publications 23 

Papers Read 26 

Individual Recognition and Projects 29 

Alumni News 32 

Public Events 33 

Linguistics Seminar 33 

Linguistics Club 45 

Co-Sponsored Events 49 

Linguistic Student Organization 49 

Departmental Publications 49 

Linguistics Weekly 49 

Graduate Study 50 

Undergraduate Study 50 

Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 50 

Order Form - Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 5 1 



University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

Official Notice 

The commitment of the University of Illinois to the most fundamental principles of academic 
freedom, equality of opportunity, and human dignity requires that decisions involving students and 
employees be based on individual merit and be free from invidious discrimination in all its forms. 

It is the policy of the University of Illinois not to engage in discrimination or harassment 
against any person because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, ancestry, age, marital status, 
disability, sexual orientation, unfavorable discharge from the military, or status as a disabled veteran 
or a veteran of the Vietnam era and to comply with all federal and state nondiscrimination, equal 
opportunity and affirmative action laws, orders, and regulations. This University's nondiscrimination 
policy applies to admissions, employment, access to and treatment in the University's programs and 
activities. Complaints of invidious discrimination prohibited by University policy are to be resolved 
within existing University procedures. 

For additional information or assistance on the equal opportunity, affirmative action, and 
harassment policies of the University, please contact: For the Urbana-Champaign campus, Larine Y. 
Cowan, Assistant Chancellor and Director, Office of Affirmative Action, 100 A Swanlund, MC-304, 
601 East John Street, Champaign, EL 61820. Telephone: (217) 333-0885. 



Notes from the Department Head 

This has been a year of momentous changes for our department. At the beginning of the year, 
Chuck Kisseberth elected to take early retirement to accept an offer from Tel Aviv. Yamuna Kachru, 
an important member of our faculty almost since the department began, has decided to retire at the end 
of the coming year. We will miss Chuck a great deal. We are grateful that Yamuna will stay among 
us as Professor Emerita, writing and counseling students. 

There are also some additions to announce. We will be joined in the fall by three outstanding 
young linguists who we successfully recruited during the year. Adele Goldberg's work is in syntax 
and semantics especially the role of constructions with strong cognitive implications. She did her 
Ph.D. at Berkeley, and has been teaching at the University of California at San Diego since. Elabbas 
Benmamoun, who did his Ph.D. at USC, works in syntactic theory and Semitic languages. He will 
also be supervising our growing program in Arabic. Elabbas comes to us from his current position at 
the SOAS in London. Daniel Silverman is our new phonologist, with a Ph.D. from UCLA doing 
very interesting work that combines phonetics and phonological theory. 

Plans for the 1999 Linguistic Institute, hosted here, are becoming more concrete under the 
direction of Hans Henrich Hock who will be Director of the Institute. After almost a year of 
consideration and discussion by our faculty, we contacted a number of eminent linguists to invite them 
to teach at the Institute. We were gratified at the high acceptance rate. We will publicize the stellar list 
of names once official invitations have been formally accepted. We will soon start a web page for the 
Institute. Its availability will be announced on our department web page: 
http://www.cogsci.uiuc.edu/linguistics. 

Finally, a couple of sad events; one of our founders, Robert Lees, passed away, leaving a 
large void, and we were saddened to learn of the death of C. L. Baker, one of our first Ph.D's. A 
memorial for Bob Lees was held here in the spring, he was remembered with fond reminiscences of 
his vibrant presence. 

Jerry Morgan 
Professor and Head 



Department of Linguistics Personnel, 1996-1997 

Faculty 

Bokamba, Eyamba G. 

Professor of Linguistics, (African linguistics, Bantu syntax, sociolinguistics: 
multilingualism, language variation, code switching, language planning and policy). 

Cheng, Chin-Chuan 

Director, Language Learning Laboratory, LAS Jubilee Professor of Linguistics, Chinese, and 
English as an International Language (computational linguistics, quantifying dialect affinity, and 
Chinese discourse analysis). 

Cole, Jennifer 

Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Beckman Institute, (phonology and computational 
linguistics). 

Green, Georgia M. 

Professor of Linguistics, Beckman Institute (syntactic theory, pragmatics, and discourse 
understanding). 

Hock, Hans Henrich 

Acting Director, Program in South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Professor of 
Linguistics, Sanskrit, the Classics, English as an International Language; cooperating faculty in 
French and Germanic Languages and Literatures; member, Russian and East European Studies 
Center, and Program in South and West Asian Studies (general historical linguistics, Indo-European, 
historical and synchronic Sanskrit studies, Old English syntax, prosody, and syntax). 

Kachru, Braj B. 

Director and Professor, The Center for Advanced Study and LAS Jubilee Professor of 
Linguistics, Education, English as an International Language, and Comparative Literature 
(sociolinguistics, World Englishes, multilingualism, and language and ideology). 

Kachru, Yamuna 

Professor of Linguistics, (syntax, semantics and pragmatics of South Asian languages, 
especially Hindi; Hindi literature; applied linguistics, discourse analysis; crosscultural speech acts; 
contrastive rhetoric). 

Kim, Chin-Woo 

Professor of Linguistics, Korean, Speech and Hearing Sciences, and English as an 
International Language (phonetics, phonology, morphology, Korean linguistics, and stylistics). 

Lasersohn, Peter 

Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Beckman Institute (semantics, pragmatics, and 
mathematical linguistics). 

Maclay, Howard S. 

Professor of Linguistics, English as an International Language, and Education; Research 
Professor in the Institute of Communications Research; affiliate in Department of Anthropology 
(psycholinguistics and applied linguistics). 



Morgan, Jerry L. 

Professor and Head of Linguistics, Beckman Institute (syntax, pragmatics, morphology, 
computational linguistics, natural language processing, and Albanian). 

Pandharipande, Rajeshwari 

Professor of Religious Studies, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature (Hindi language and 
literature, language of religion, syntax and semantics of Sanskrit, Hindi, and Marathi, 
sociolinguistics, Asian mythology, Hinduism). 

Yoon, James 

Associate Professor of Linguistics and Korean (syntax, morphology, and Korean and 
Japanese linguistics). 

Emeritus Faculty 

Antonsen, Elmer H. 

Professor Emeritus of Linguistics and of Germanic Languages, 1 August 1996 (historical, 
comparative and synchronic Germanic linguistics, runic inscriptions, phonology, morphology, and 
orthographies). 

Kisseberth, Charles W. 

Professor Emeritus of Linguistics (phonology and tonology). 

Zgusta, Ladislav 

Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, Classics, and Center for Advanced Study (lexicography, 
and Indo-European linguistics). 

Leaves of Absence 
Yoon, James (AY 96-97) 

Appointments Outside the Department 

Chin-Chuan Cheng 

Professor and Director, Language Learning Laboratory. 

Hans Henrich Hock 

Professor and Acting Director, Program in South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies. 

Braj B. Kachru 

Professor and Director, Center for Advanced Study. 

Howard Maclay 

Professor and Acting Director, English as an International Language. 



Cooperating Faculty 

(Adjunct appointments in the Department of Linguistics) 

Alfonso, Peter J. 

Professor and Head, Speech and Hearing Science (speech physiology and electromagnetic 
articulography). 

Baron, Dennis E. 

Professor, English (history of English, language attitudes, policy, and reform; language and 
gender; literacy). 

Blaylock, W. Curtis 

Professor, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese (Romance linguistics). 

Bouton, Lawrence 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language pedagogical grammar, American 
culture, pragmatics). 

Browne, Gerald 

Professor, Classics (Coptic and Old Nubian studies). 

Cowan, J. Ronayne 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language (psycholinguistics, reading in first 
and second languages). 

Dawson, Clayton 

Professor Emeritus, Slavic Languages and Literature (Slavic linguistics, Old Church Slavic 
lexicon). 

Dell, Gary 

Professor, Psychology (psycholinguistics). 

Dickerson, Wayne 

Professor, English as an International Language (phonology, orthography, teaching ESL 
pronunciation). 

Fisher, Cynthia 

Associate Professor, Psychology (first language acquisition). 

Fujii, Seiko 

Assistant Professor, East Asian Languages and Cultures (Japanese linguistics), (resigned 
Spring 97). 

Garnsey, Susan 

Assistant Professor, Psychology (psycholinguistics). 

Gladney, Frank Y. 

Associate Professor, Slavic Languages and Literatures (phonology, accentuation, 
morphology, syntax, and lexicography of Russian, Czech, and Polish). 

Gonzo, Susan 

Assistant Professor and Associate Provost, English as an International Language (second 
language acquisition, immigrant languages, first language attrition). 

4 



Hart, Robert 

Assistant Professor, Language Learning Laboratory (computer-based language instruction, 
computational linguistics). 

Hualde, Jose Ignacio 

Associate Professor, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese (phonology, Romance linguistics, 
Basque linguistics). 

Hueting, Gail 

Associate Professor, Library Administration (Linguistics librarian). 

Jenkins, Frederick 

Associate Professor, French (all aspects of contemporary French language). 

Kibbee, Douglas A. 

Associate Professor, French (history of linguistics). 

Kramarae, Cheris 

Professor, Speech Communication (sociolinguistics, discourse, communication and gender, 
language and power). 

Kuehn, David 

Professor, Speech and Hearing Science (speech anatomy and physiology). 

Lehman, F. K. 

Professor, Anthropology (Southeast Asia, Tibeto-Burman, Tai, cognition, syntax) 

Mack, Molly 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language (bilingualism, neurolinguistics, 
psycholinguistics, phonetics, speech perception). 

Markee, Numa P. 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language (English for special 
purposes/communicative language teaching, language policy, language planning). 

Packard, Jerome 

Associate Professor, East Asian and Pacific Studies (Chinese linguistics, psycholinguistics, 
neurolinguistics). 

Pitard, Wayne T. 

Associate Professor, Religious Studies (Ugaritic, Biblical Hebrew). 

Lecturers 

Donchin, Rina 

Coordinator, Hebrew Program (Hebrew language and literature, teaching methodology). 

Kirchner, Robert 

Lecturer (phonology). 



Visiting Faculty 

Lowenberg, Peter 

Associate Professor (San Jose State University) 



Aljadeff, Pninit (Hebrew) 
Bhagwat, Manisha (Hindi) 



Teaching Associates 



Purkhosrow, Khosrow (Persian) 
Weinberger-Rotman, Marganit (Hebrew) 



Teaching Assistants 



Alghazo, Manal (Arabic) 
Amir, Keren (Hebrew) 
Amir, Ofer (Hebrew) 
Bangali, Lamissa (Bamana) 
Baker, Wendy (Ling. 225) 
Barro, Maimouna (Wolof) 
Baxter, David (Ling. 200) 
Elsaadany, Kamel (Arabic) 
Frenck, Susan (Ling. 200) 
Hegelheimer, Belinda (Bamana) 



Jha, Girish (Hindi) 

Kumar, Avatans (Hindi) 

Kuo, Shiun-Zu (Ling. 306) 

Kutryb, Carol (Ling 225) 

Mulumba, Leon (Lingala) 

Ndoye, Ibrahima (Wolof) 

Shams, Salwa (Arabic) 

Sukumane, Joyce (Zulu) 

Weinberger-Rotman, Marganit (Hebrew) 

Yambi, Josephine (Swahili) 



Graduate Assistants 



Adra, Ali (Reading Room) 
Chen, Shu-Fen (Reading Room) 
Derhemi, Eda (J. Morgan) 
Gurevich, Naomi (Web Site) 
Hartkemeyer, Dale (L. Zgusta) 
Honegger, Mark (SLS) 
Iskarous, Khalil, (J. Cole) 



Lee, Kent (Linguistics Seminar) 
Maynard, Kelly (Linguistics Institute) 
Min, Su Jung (Y. Kachru) 
Miner, Edward (African Languages) 
Rhee, Seok-Chae (Phonetics Lab) 
Suzuki-Kose, Yuriko (Reading Room) 



Secretarial Staff 

Creek, Beth: Administrative Secretary Huffman, Cathy: Staff Secretary 

HOMOLATSCH, TASSILO: Receptionist 



HONORS AND RECOGNITION 

Incomplete List of Teachers Ranked as Excellent by their Students 



Fall 1996 (Voted during Spring 1996 semester) 



Baker, Wendy 
Bhagwat, Manisha 
Cole, Jennifer 
Cowan, J. Ronayne 
Davidson, Fred 
Donchin, Rina 



Hock, Hans H. 
Hoffiz, Ben 
Hualde, Jose 
Hwang, Minsun 
Ito, Natsumi 
Kaufman, Buria 



Mack, Molly 
Makino, Reiko 
Mulumba, Leon 
Pandey, Anita 
Pandharipande, R. 
Pate, Bryan 



Elsaadany, Kamel 
Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko 
Hara, Kazue 



Kim, Eun Joo 
Koga, Hiroki 
Kumar, Avatans 



Tagliavia, Tanya 
Yoshimura, Mayuko 



Spring 1997 (Voted during Fall 1996 semester) 



Ahn, Mee-Jin 
Aljadeff, Pninit 
Baker, Wendy 

Chung, Yu-Sun 
Davidson, Fred 
Dickerson, Wayne 
Donchin, Rina 



Elsaadany, Kamel 
Kachru, Braj 
Fujii, Seiko 

Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko 
Ito, Natsumi 
Kim, Eun Joo 
Makino, Reiko 



Min, Su 
Pandey, Anjali 
Pandharipande, R. 

Tagliavia, Tanya 
W-Rotman, Marganit 
Yoshimura, Mayuko 



Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi 

Mark Honegger 



Eda Derhemi 



Fellowship Recipients 

Lars Jonsson Jee Ku Angela Nollett 



Jin Tong 



Tuition and Fee Waiver Recipients 

Yu-Sun Chung (SP97) Kiwako Ito (F96) Megan Merrill (AY97) 

DEPARTMENTAL AWARDS 

Silver Jubilee Award for Outstanding Teaching Assistant in 
Linguistics (1996-97) 

Carol Kutryb (LING 225). 

Henry R. Kahane Award for Outstanding Teaching Assistant in 
Non-Western Languages (1996-97) 

Kamel Elsaadany (Arabic). 

Outstanding Undergraduate Student for (1996-97) 

Cassandre Creswell and Kelly Schrepfer. 



DEPARTMENTAL DISTINCTION 

Cassandre Creswell: Summa Cum Laude, Highest Distinction, Bronze Tablet. 
William Hodgett: Distinction. 
Kelly Schrepfer: High Distinction. 



GRADUATE STUDENTS 



Adra, Mohamed Ali 
Ahn, Mee-Jin 
Alghazo, Manal M. 
Baker, Wendy 
Baxter, David 
Cha, Jong-Yul 
Chen, Shu-Fen 
Chen, Si-Qing 
Chen, Tsai-Er 
Chung, Yu-Sun 
Derhemi, Eda 
Donnelly, Simon 
Elsaadany, Kamel A. 
Frenck, Susan L. 
Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko 
Good, Robert 
Gurevich, Naomi 
Hara, Kazue 
Hartkemeyer, Dale C 
Holland, Amy 
Honegger, Mark A. 
Honegger, Rusdiana 
Hsiao, Elaine 
Hsu, Pihsia 
Hwang, Misun 



Iskarous, Khalil R. 
Ito, Kiwako 
Ito, Natsumi 
Jha, Girish 
Jonsson, Lars 
Jung, Eunha 
Jung, Kyu Tae 
Kim, Eun-Joo 
Ko, Kijoo 
Koga, Hiroki 
Ku, Jee 

Kumar, Avatans 
Kuo, Shiun-Zu 
Kutryb, Carol 
Lee, Joo-Kyeong 
Lee, Kent 
Lin, Huei-Ling 
Lu, Wen-Ying 
Makino, Reiko 
Maynard, Kelly 
Merrill, Megan 
Min, Su Jung 
Miner, Edward 
Motohashi, Reiko 



Nahm, Woo-Hyoung 
Nollett, Angela 
Pandey, Anita 
Pandey, Anjali 
Pate, Bryan 
Rhee, Seok-Chae 
Shams, Salwa 
Smiljanic, Rajka 
Song, Kyung-Ryung 
Suh, Jiwon 
Suzuki, Yasuko 
Suzuki-Kose, Yuriko 
Tagliavia, Tanya 
Tai, Kuei-Fen 
Tong, Jin 
Tseng, Tai- Yuan 
Tu, Shang-Fan 
Wilson, Michael 
Wu, Mary 
Yambi, Josephine 
Yoshimura, Mayuko 
You, Yu-Ling 
Yunick, Stanley G., Jr. 
Zoure, Auguste 



UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS 



Ahn, Elise 
Bernd, Julia 
Chan, Noel 
Chong, Sherman 
Cresswell, Cassandre 
Crum, Hannah 
Daniels, Mike 



Heyman, Tanya 
Hasler, Sarah 
Fletcher, Todd 
Kim, Grace 
McClure, Madelena 
Mikolajczyk, Monika 
Moore, Thomas 



Pyles, Erich 
Ross, Amanda 
Schrepfer, Kelly 
Spenader, Allison 
Teixeira, Bianca 
Walther, Rebecca 



DEGREES AWARDED 
BA. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 



Chan, Noel 
Chong, Sherman 
Creswell, Cassandre 



Hodgett, William 
Ross, Amanda 
Sanders, David 



Schrepfer, Kelly 
Van Ryn, Matthew 
Vu, Sonny 



M.A. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 



Alghazo, Manal 
Baker, Wendy 
Branstine, Zoann 
Chung, Yu Sun 



Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko 
Hsu, Pihsia 
Ito, Kiwako 
Ku, Jee 



Kumar, Avatans 
Merrill, Megan 
Nollett, Angela 



Ph.D. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 



Alidou, Hassana 
Andreasson, Anne-Marie 
Cho, Sae-Youn 
Helmriech, Steven 
Honegger, Mark 
Kim, Byong-Kwon 



Kim, Eun-Joo 
Ko, Kijoo 
Kose, Yuriko 
Lai, Chiu-Yueh 
Lee, Jae- Young 



Marlow, Patrick 
McClanahan, Virginia 
Pandey, Anita 
Pandey, Anjali 
Wu, Mary 



Ph.D. Dissertation Abstracts 

Andreasson, Anne-Marie 

Swedish Word Accents 

Charles W. Kisseberth, Advisor 

19 February 1996 

Swedish words are assigned one of two possible melodic contours. These have traditionally 
been called accent 1 and 2. "It has been demonstrated ... that the distinction between Accent 1 and 
Accent 2 is in the timing of a HL pattern relative to the stressed syllable" (Bailey 1990). For tone 
alignment, Bailey proposes a feature DP [delayed peak], which serves as phonological opposition and 
alignment specification (1990) as follows: 

[- delayed peak] aligns with the stressed syllable 
[+ delayed peak] aligns with the post stress syllable 

Dialects of Swedish are divided into two main classes, the High dialects and the Low dialects. For the 
minimal pair anden 'the duck' and anden 'the spirit', Bailey gives the following surface 
representation for H dialects: 



H L 
-DP 

1 / 
anden 


1 


H L 

+DP 

i i 


'the duck' 


i i 
anden 



'the spirit' 

There have been two main ways of accounting for accent assignment. The Standard Solution 
assigned accent 1 to monosyllabic words and accent 2 to disyllabic ones. The Modified Standard 
Solution assigned accent 1 to monomorphemic words and accent 2 to plurimorphemic ones. Both 
analyses captured important generalizations about accent in Swedish, but involved complex rules and 
numerous exceptions. A situation where only general trends are observed is difficult to address with 
rules, and seems suited to a non-procedural approach where constraints determine the output. It is 
also clear that the distinction between accents is better expressed as a distinction in pitch domain. I 
assume that "the domain is an explicit aspect of phonological structure, with the same status as 
structures for the syllable, foot, word, etc." (Cole and Kisseberth 1994). For H dialects, the question 
is, does the domain extend over the stressed syllable or over the stressed and the post-stressed 
syllable? 



H L 

1 / 
[anjden 


1 


H L 

i i 


'the duck' 


i I 
anden 



'the spirit' 

An Optimal Domains Theory account of Swedish word accents provides a principled way of 
relating the general trends observed, it greatly reduces the number of exceptions, and makes the 
relationship between stress, morphology and pitch domain explicit. 

Alidou, Hassana 

Education Language Policy and Bilingual Education: The Impact of French Language Policy in 

Primary Education in Niger 
Eyamba G. Bokamba, Advisor 
12 April 1994 

The study analyses language policies and their effects on pupils' academic achievement in two 
types of primary education programs in Niger. A Hausa and French bilingual school, called Ecole 
Experimentale, and a French monolingual school called Ecole Lazaret Deux. The study uses the 
bilingual proficiency framework developed by Cummins (1979) and McNab's (1989) education 
language planning model to analyze, respectively, the students' performance on selected language 
tasks (dictation, composition and reading comprehension) and content area tests (mathematics, social 
studies) tests administered in French and the sociolinguistic situation in Niger in general and in the 
schools in particular. 

The research findings show that language policy advocating the use of mother tongue (in this 
case Hausa) in primary education is not detrimental to pupils' French learning and their academic 
performance in language. They also indicate that in the case of primary education in Niger, longer 
exposure to instruction in French does not trigger appropriate proficiency in it. Both schools' pupils 
performed poorly on the achievement and proficiency tests administered during the experiment. That 
result suggests that there are serious problems related to the teaching and testing methods utilize 
currently in the Nigerian education system. 

The sociolinguistic analysis indicates that at the advent of its political independence and up to 
now, Niger has mostly continued its colonial language policy both in education and administration by 
maintaining French as the exclusive media in formal domains (education and administration). In non- 
formal education (literacy and adult education), five national languages (Hausa, Zarma-Sonrai, 
Fulfulde, Kanuri and Tamajeq) are used as means of instruction. In formal education, these national 
languages have been used in only 40 schools for an experiment which has begun 1973. The positive 
report on the experiment and the various recommendations from scholars and the national education 
conferences have not materialized in a language policy which advocates the use of national languages 
in at least the primary education system. 

Using our research findings and taking into account Niger' sociopolitical profile and its 
organizational context, we recommend a careful implementation of a bilingual education program 
which advocates the use of the regional languages (Hausa, Zarma-Songhai, Fulfude, Kanuri and 
Tamajeq) along with French in primary education. The regional languages must serve first as means 
of instruction from first up to fourth grade, while French is taught as a subject; and in fifth and sixth 
grade French must become the language of instruction and the regional languages must be taught as 
subjects. The promotion of French and national languages throughout the primary education system is 
argued to be more advantageous pedagogically than a transitional bilingual education program which 



10 



ends the use of mother tongue in the child's education. It is suggested that such proposal be 
implemented progressively while the extensive teacher training and language development activities are 
undertaken by government and private institutions which are in favor of the use of national languages 
in education and the finding of long-term solutions to the education language problems in Niger. 

Cho, Sae-Youn 

Non-Constituent Coordination as a Subtype of Constituent Coordination 

Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 
30 July 1996 

This dissertation provides an account of NCC (Non-Constituent Coordination) in HPSG, 
based on the hypothesis that all coordination is coordination among the same types of daughters. This 
hypothesis is implemented into HPSG as the more specific claim that NCC is coordination among the 
same types of nonhead daughters. 

The implementation of this idea into the grammar was carried out by postulating a new partial 
sort hierarchy whose supertype is non-headed-structure; a new way of looking at the structure of 
NCC, whose conjuncts share the same type of constituent structure, enabled us to do so. In addition 
to the sorts, this theory proposed a small number of schemata licensing NCC structures and a domain 
theory constraining the work order of NCC and suggested a unification-based semantics to provide 
appropriate interpretations for the constructions. Based on the theoretical fundamentals, this theory 
illustrates how to account for various types of NCC in natural languages such as English (SVO) and 
Korean (SOV). In comparing English NCC to Korean NCC, it was found that the first is often 
ambiguous while the latter is not. By classifying Korean NCC into four types depending on the 
presence of overt case markers and conjunctions, it was also found that the existence of ambiguity in 
each type is subject to a generalization. Further, this generalization for Korean NCC is claimed to 
extend to NCC in other types of languages such as Chinese and Persian. 

Thus, this theory is an empirically and theoretically desirable account of NCC. 

Helmreich, Steven C. 

Pragmatic Referring Functions as Montague Semantic Operators 

Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

7 April 1994 

In this dissertation, the thesis is defended that lexical semantics is not a subdomain of 
semantics, but rather a subdomain of pragmatics. That is, knowledge about the meaning of words is 
not part of one's knowledge of the language, but rather part of one's knowledge of the world. This 
distinction marks the traditional difference between dictionary and encyclopedia. One consults a 
dictionary to find out what the word lemon means (on the assumption that one knows what lemons 
are), while one goes on the encyclopedia to find out about lemons (on the assumption that you know 
how English speakers name them). The view suggested here is that this is a distinction that is not 
possible to maintain in a formal description of a language. Such a formal description, it is claimed, 
should contain only minimal semantic information about any lexical item. Almost all semantic 
information would be regarded as encyclopedic world-knowledge. 

Part of establishing this thesis is to show that the interpretation of lexical items in utterances 
can be contextually determined, given a suitably broad definition of context, and is thus pragmatic in 
nature, understanding the domain of pragmatics to be language in context. For, if lexical items have 
no context-independent (semantic) meaning, it at first seems unclear how communication occurs, how 
speaker intentions are communicated. It appears contradictory for the interpretation of an utterance to 
depend on the interpretation of its parts (to accept some form of the Principle of Compositionality) and 
for the interpretation of the smallest parts to be determined pragmatically from context (so that these 
lexical items gather their interpretation from the interpretation of the whole). 

11 



Thus, much of this dissertation is devoted to the task of providing a truth-conditional model- 
theoretic account of utterance meaning that allows for the interpretation of lexical items in context 
without recourse to any object that might be called its meaning. This account uses as a basis a 
Montague-type semantics and incorporates a modification of the methods suggested by Geoffrey 
Nunberg in his dissertation, The Pragmatics of Reference, (Nunberg 1978). 

Honegger, Mark A. 

The Semantic Basis for Subject/Object Asymmetries in English 

Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 

19 May 97 

In this dissertation, I defend the thesis that the tense morpheme in English combines 
semantically with the subject of the sentence rather than the verb phrase or entire sentence. Both tensed 
verbs and modals in English include a category called the time-modality element (TME) which is 
represented as an ordered triplet <T,W,L> consisting of a set of moments of time, a set of possible 
worlds and a physical location. The TME is a nominal modifier that imposes a temporal-modal 
restriction on the referent of the subject in the eventuality. For example, the past tense morpheme 
would locate the subject in the real world in the moments of time prior to the moment of coding. In a 
sentence like Mary met John, the event of Mary meeting John is not located temporally but Mary is 
located in the past in that event. The temporal location of the event is determined by the meaning of the 
predicate. The meaning of meet requires that the meeter and the meetee and the event of meeting all 
exist at the same time. If I know when the meeter exists, then the meeting and the meetee must also 
exist at some time that overlaps the existence of the meeter. Thus, the meeting between Mary and John 
as well as John himself must also exist in the past on a truthful utterance of the above sentence. 

However, there are sentences which show an asymmetry between the existence of the subject 
in the eventuality and other constituents in the sentence. For example, there are truthful utterances of 
sentences like Aunt May resembled Sally, where Aunt May is dead and Sally is alive. The state of 
resembling could be construed as beginning with the existence of Aunt May and continuing into the 
present, or it could be construed as beginning only in the present when Sally has the characteristics 
that are similar to Aunt May. However, the state of resembling cannot be contained wholly in the past 
and exclude the present. In such a situation, neither Sally nor the resembling is located by the tense but 
only Aunt May. This dissertation argues that the simplest hypothesis that captures these facts is to 
stipulate that the tense combines only with the subject and not anything else in the sentence. 

I further argue that certain word order facts fall out from treating tense as a nominal modifier 
rather than an operator on or modifier of the verb. I use a set of three constraints EdgeMost, Non- 
Edge and Integrity that are rank ordered for any given language. These three constraints all depend 
on the semantic relation between a head element and its arguments and modifiers. The semantic 
relationship between the subject and tense predicts that when tense and the verb are realized separately, 
the tense will occur with the subject rather than the verb. English bears this out in sentences like Eat 
the cake, John did. 

Kim, Eun Joo 

The Sensitive Period for Second-Language Acquisition: A Reaction-Time Study of Maturational 

Effects on the Acquisition ofL2 Lexico-Semantic and 

Syntactic Systems 

Molly Mack, Advisor 

18 November 96 

The present study addresses issues regarding the sensitive-period hypothesis (SPH) for 
second-language acquisition in relation to the acquisition of L2 lexico-semantics and syntax. Two 
experiments, a lexical-decision test with semantic priming and a grammatically-judgment test which 

12 



involve both speed of response (RT) and accuracy of response (AR), were conducted to test whether 
or not there is a sensitive period for second-language acquisition. More specifically, the experiments 
were designed to test the possibility of multiple sensitive periods for processing different components 
of language. 

A total of 80 subjects, 10 native speakers of English and 70 Korean-English bilinguals who 
differed in ages at onset of exposure to English (0-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15+), participated in 
both the semantic and syntactic experiments. Group differences were analyzed with ANOVAs. The 
results of the experiments clearly indicated that there is a sensitive period (SP-I) during which L2 
acquisition must occur if native-like proficiency is to be achieved, and it ends at around age 5. Also, it 
was found that there is a residual sensitive period (SP-II) during which early onset of L2 acquisition 
has an advantage over late onset of L2 acquisition. 

In both experiments, age-of-onset effects were more clearly observed in the speed of response 
than in the accuracy of judgments. Moreover, the effects of the sensitive periods on the acquisition L2 
lexico-semantics were qualitatively different from those on L2 syntax. That is, the effects of the 
sensitive periods in syntax were more salient than those in lexico-semantics. 

Significant results were also revealed by correctional analyses which tested whether or not age 
of L2 acquisition correlates with performance in the L2: Age of onset of L2 negatively correlated with 
the performance in the L2. Finally, it was found that age of onset of the L2 is a better predictor of 
performance in the L2 than length of stay in the L2 environment. 

Taken together, the findings from both experiments suggest that sensitive periods for L2 
acquisition are involved both in lexico-semantics and in syntax, and that the exact nature of the effects 
of the sensitive periods may be different, depending upon the linguistic component and the task under 
examination. These findings are discussed with regard to their implications for multiple sensitive 
periods for second-language acquisition. 

Ko, Kijoo 

Bilingual Language Organization: Lexical and Syntactic Processing 

Molly Mack, Advisor 

13 January 97 

One of the most intriguing questions in bilingual research is the nature of the coexistence of 
two languages within one individual — i.e., how two languages are organized in one brain and how 
the information is stored and retrieved. Various theories have been suggested to describe bilinguals' 
mental storage and information processing system(s). Among them, two competing theoretical 
positions, the Shared Hypothesis and the Separate Hypothesis, have been the focus of controversy in 
much of the literature on bilinguals. The Shared Hypothesis states that a bilingual has one shared 
system which is language independent whereas the Separate Hypothesis posits that a bilingual has two 
separate systems each of which subserves one language. To date, numerous studies have revealed 
different outcomes supporting each position; it is not easy to interpret these conflicting results and 
conclude that either of the above hypotheses is entirely valid. As a possible solution, the Mixed 
Hypothesis has been proposed with its intermediate view arguing that bilingual language organization 
is partially shared and partially separate. 

In the present study, along with an extensive literature review, it is emphasized that one needs 
to consider differing conditions (e.g., subject selection, task effect, type of materials, and language- 
specific factors) to understand previously obtained results. Then, in relation to the issue, two 
reaction-time (hereafter RT) experiments are described. These were conducted to investigate bilingual 
lexical and syntactic processing. In particular, the project was designed to assess the role of 



13 



similar/dissimilar language systems in bilingual information processing by directly comparing fluent 
French-English and Korean-English bilinguals in comparable tasks, with RT and accuracy as the 
dependent variables. 

In the first experiment, a lexical-decision task with semantic priming was employed in 
unilingual and bilingual conditions to investigate the following research questions: (1) Is there any 
difference between French-English and Korean-English bilinguals in terms of speed and/or accuracy 
of response in a lexical-decision task with semantic priming? If so, can this difference be attributed to 
language-specific factors, such as orthographic similarities/differences in the subjects' two languages? 

(2) Is there any difference in RT and/or accuracy between unilingual and bilingual conditions? 
Particularly in the bilingual conditions, does language predictability — i.e., subjects' awareness of the 
language to be presented (predictably mixed vs. randomly mixed) — affect performance? (3) Are 
responses faster and more accurate when the target word is related — e.g., repeated or associated — to 
the prime word regardless of language? And is an interlingual priming effect (if one is found) 
comparable to an intralingual priming effect? 

Results revealed that the two groups of subjects did not exhibit any significant difference in 
terms of RT or accuracy in processing lexical information. Both French-English and Korean-English 
bilinguals showed nearly identical patterns of processing. Thus, at least at the lexical level, it is likely 
that bilinguals have a common lexical organization regardless of the degree of similarity between then- 
two languages. It was also found that the subjects had little difficulty in processing unilingual vs. 
bilingual stimuli. Even in the bilingual conditions, they could respond as rapidly and accurately as in 
the unilingual conditions. Furthermore, language predictability did not have a significant effect on 
performance in the bilingual conditions; with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 200 msec, 
the subjects were not able to develop or use a pre-attentive strategy. Rather, more fundamental 
factors, such as the bilinguals' proficiency level, seemed to play a crucial role in language processing. 
Finally, the existence of an interlingual priming effect supported the Shared Hypothesis, but only 
partially so, as its strength was not equal to that of intralingual priming. 

To further test the Shared/Separate Hypotheses in syntactic processing, a second experiment 
was conducted using a self-paced sentence-reading paradigm. Here, the research questions were as 
follows: (1) Is there any difference between French-English and Korean-English bilinguals in terms 
of speed in a reading task? If so, can this difference be attributed to language-specific factors, such as 
orthographic similarities/differences in the subjects' two languages? (2) Is there any difference in RT 
between unilingual and bilingual conditions? That is, is there any disadvantage such as an additional 
switching time or "psychological cost" for decoding and encoding unilingual vs. bilingual stimuli? 

(3) Is there any difference in sentence reading speed depending on the availability of context 
(connected vs. disconnected vs. anomalous)? 

Results revealed a significant main effect for group, with the Korean-English bilinguals 
exhibiting faster RTs per syllable than the French-English bilinguals in reading bilingual text. Given 
the fact that Korean and English use markedly distinct orthographic systems, such as a language- 
specific effect is not surprising, at least in visual processing. Unlike the French-English bilinguals, 
the Korean-English bilinguals might benefit from the perceptual salience of two surface forms when 
these languages co-exist in written sentences. Both groups read the code-mixing sentences relatively 
slowly, exhibiting a difference between the unilingual and bilingual conditions. This may be in 
accordance with the Separate Hypothesis: Bilinguals need a certain amount of time to switch from one 
language system to another. However, unlike previous research which has suggested the existence of 
a switch mechanism (about 400 msec for input and output combined), only a short switching time was 
observed - 50 msec for the Korean-English bilinguals and 260 msec for the French-English 
bilinguals. This time was even shorter in the two groups for connected sentences, with 30 and 210 
msec, respectively. A certain amount of switching time may be necessary in actual bilingual 
situations, but it is not so great as to interfere with the natural flow of communication. In addition, a 
context effect was found. That is, subjects responded faster to connected sentences in comparison to 

14 



disconnected or anomalous sentences. This outcome implies that, as long as sufficient context is 
provided as in a natural bilingual situation, mixing two languages may not be problematic for fluent 
experienced bilinguals. 

The results of the two experiments are interpreted as support for the Mixed Hypothesis and the 
conclusion is made that, instead of applying the extreme version of the Shared or Separate 
Hypothesis, the Mixed Hypothesis better integrates and reflects the hybrid nature of bilingual 
processing. 

Kose, Yuriko S. 

Japanese Sentence-Final Particles: A Pragmatic Principle Approach 

Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

14 April 97 

Japanese sentence-final particles (SFPs) do not contribute to the truth-conditional meaning of 
utterances but rather convey the speaker's attitude toward what is being said. This dissertation 
explains the distribution and possible interpretations of the commonly used SFPs yo, zo, wa, and ne, 
and one combined SFP yone. Each monosyllabic SFP is characterized independently in terms of the 
speaker's belief and intention (including the speaker's belief about the addressee's belief and 
intention).. Combined SFPs are analyzed as composed of their apparent components (e.g., yone 
consists of yo and ne), and their interpretations follow from the principles that govern the uses of each 
component. Each chapter shows that the distribution and possible interpretations of a SFP follow as 
consequences of the principle governing the particle and the Cooperative Principle. 

This study shows that SFPs are something that the speaker uses to represent himself as having 
a certain attitude (i.e., certain beliefs and intentions), and their uses contribute to the inference process: 
The speaker uses a SFP to achieve his goal, and assumes that the addressee also believes that the 
speaker has a goal and believes that whatever the speaker does (including the speaker's choice of a 
SFP) is relevant for the speaker's goal. Given an utterance with a SFP, the addressee, who assumes 
that whatever act the speaker performs is relevant to the speaker's goal, infers that the speaker intends 
to convey something by the fact that the speaker uses a particular SFP in a given situation. 

Lai, Chiu-Yueh 

On the Classification of the Chinese Script 

Chin-Chuan Cheng, Advisor 

4 April 96 

This dissertation examines the seemingly intractable controversies on the classification of the 
Chinese script from broader linguistic perspectives, delves into the reasons for the controversies, and 
provides a theoretical exposition and various pieces of empirical evidence for the argument that "he 
Chinese script should be classified as a morphemic system of writing, as opposed to a syllabic ji a 
morphosyllabic system of writing. 

Specifically, it is found that the controversies on the classification of the Chinese script are 
incurred by the establishment of some basic assumptions in the field of writing typology, by 
incommensurability of terms used in the analyses of the Chinese script and in writing typological 
studies, and last but not least, by different views toward the nature of the Chinese script. 

Five chapters are included in the dissertation. Chapter One documents a peculiar case of 
character simplification attested in the course of the Language Reform in the People's Republic of 
China and presents a general survey of the controversies, especially the very recent one, on the 
classification of the Chinese script. Chapters Two and Three provide theoretical preliminaries 
germane to contemporary writing typological practice-the former dealing with what writing is and the 
latter with how typological classifications of writing systems are construed. Our argument that the 

15 



Chinese script should be considered an example of a morphemic system of writing, in which graphs 
typically strive to make reference to distinct morphemes of the language the script is derived from, is 
supported by virtue of both a theoretical exposition, viz. Chapter Four, and various empirical 
observations, especially those concerning the graphic level of binomes (hanmianzl), presented in 
Chapter Five. 

Lee, Jae-Young 

Some Aspects of English Phonology: An Optimality Theoretic Approach 

Jennifer Cole, Advisor 
23 August 96 

This thesis investigates some morphophonemic alternations in English vocalic and consonantal 
phonology. The alternations include three types of phonological phenomena: vowel quality 
discrepancies, Cluster Simplification, and Voicing Assimilation. This thesis focuses on why these 
phenomena occur. The goal of this work is to explore the motivating forces of these phenomena and 
present a principled account of the morphophonemic alternations. Unlike studies in the previous 
classical generative approach, this work appeals to functional principles fully integrated into a formal 
phonological analysis. To present explicit formal analyses of the three kinds of phenomena, I adopt 
the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky 1993, McCarthy and Prince 1993a, b). 

Major issues in English vocalic phonology concern the tenseness discrepancy and height 
discrepancy between underived words and derived words. The tenseness discrepancy is attested in 
phenomena like CiV Tensing, Trisyllabic Laxing, CC Laxing, and "-ic" Laxing. These phenomena 
are explained in terms of prosodic structure. The height discrepancy, which since SPE has been 
covered by a rule of English Vowel Shift, is accounted for within the "principled" Optimality Theory 
approach, one which provides an explicit role for functional principles in a formal phonological 
analysis. 

Cluster Simplification observed in nasal-consonant clusters, and voicing agreement in 
consonant clusters are also treated in a more explanatory way within the principled Optimality Theory 
approach. 

The implications of this study of English phonology are the apparently English-specific 
phenomena turn out, not surprisingly, to be explainable in terms of universal well-formedness 
constraint, and that functional considerations serve to justify those constraints. 

Marlow, Patrick Edward 

Origin and Development of the Indo- Aryan Quotatives and Complementizers 

an Areal Approach 

Hans Henrich Hock, Advisor 

9 October 1995 

In this thesis I use a dialectological approach to linguistic convergence and areal linguistics to 
investigate the degree to which Indo-Aryan complementizers and quotatives can be attributed to 
outside influences (Persian and Dravidian, respectively) or internal developments. I determine that 
Persian influence is responsible for the spread of complementizers and deictic quotatives must be seen 
as internal to Indo-Aryan. The development of verbal quotatives is less clear. On the basis of the 
available data, I conclude that a combination of forces is necessary to account for all of the forms 
found in Indo-Aryan. In brief, I argue that while a Dravidian source must be acknowledged for those 
Indo-Aryan languages in direct contact with Dravidian, the distribution of forms in the remaining 
Indo-Aryan languages with verbal quotatives and the speed necessary to account for their development 
is more consistent with an internal analysis. 

16 



McClanahan, Virginia Kathryn 

Some Interactions of Grammar and Pragmatics in Negation in Korean 

Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 

4 December 1991 

There are two negation markers in Korean: ani (usually shortened to an) and mos . The basic 
distinction between the two markers is a semantic one. While mos indicates inability, an simply 
denotes the negative. The two negation markers occur in Short and Long negative constructions. 

In this thesis I show that choice of short form or long form negation in Korean is largely 
determined by a single pragmatic factor, i.e., speaker belief about and commitment to volitional 
control on the part of the referent of the subject. The alternative would be that Short NEG and Long 
NEG can be differentiated on the basis of the scope of negation. 

I present arguments that various distributional constraints follow from the fact that the choice 
of Short or Long NEG is determined by pragmatic factors. The same distributional constraints must 
be stated as arbitrary independent constraints if the scope hypothesis is adopted. First, the facts that 
adjective verbs are not negated with Short NEG mos but are negated with Long NEG mos , and that 
adjective verbs are not negated with Short NEG an as often as with Long NEG an follow from the 
hypothesis that Short NEG is used by a speaker to imply a volitional act on the part of the referent of 
the subject. The scope hypothesis makes no prediction about adjective verbs. Second, the fact that 
Short NEG is used by speakers for emphasis and strong refusal follows from the volition hypothesis. 
The scope hypothesis makes no prediction in this matter. A theoretical basis is also proposed for the 
volition hypothesis. 

It is shown that in order to adequately describe the facts of negation in Korean, the pragmatics 
must be considered along with the grammar. 

Pandey, Anita 

A Linguistic Analysis of Adult Discourse 

Yamuna Kachru, Advisor 

24 June 1997 

The present study was motivated by a number of observations. First, although several studies 
have been carried out to investigate the use of Communication Strategies (CSs, hereafter) in the speech 
of different language learners, these studies have concentrated almost entirely on learners of English as 
a second language (ESL) or as a foreign language (EFL), ignoring the use made of CSs by aphasics, 
particularly expressive aphasics who, arguably, are also language learners, even if the kind of 
language learning they are primarily engaged in is viewed as one of the language re-learning and/or 
language retrieval. A definition of compensatory strategies is in order. 

The term "compensatory strategies" (also CSs) refers to those devices—verbal and/or non- 
verbal—employed (un)consciously by the language learner and, in this case, by the expressive aphasic, 
to aid in communication or, to compensate for his/her linguistic disability by expanding the linguistic 
means at his/her disposal, in order to ensure some degree of communicability with others. This term 
will be used instead of "speech strategies" because it is modality-neutral and because it engenders 
communicative achievement. 



17 



Pandey, Anjali 

Articulating Prejudice: A Linguistic Perspective on Animated Movies 

Braj B. Kachru, Advisor 

8 July 1997 

Various English dialects receive differential treatment in media directed at children. The 
motivation for the present study occurred after encountering explanations for negative attitudes 
displayed by children towards nonstandard dialects, which failed to locate the source(s) of such 
attitudes. In this study, it is argued that the movie industry (in particular, the animated film industry), 
plays a crucial role in such socialization. 

The goal of this study is to examine the linguistic mechanisms through which the discourse of 
the animated movie emits and sustains relations of power and ideology. The framework of analysis is 
derived from current theories of critical linguistics which seek to describe and explain the linguistic 
devices utilized to reflect and sustain asymmetrical power relations in a given society. The data corpus 
consists of excerpts from animated movies produced over the last 50 years. 

Linguistic analyses of the data demonstrate a consistent attempt to present speakers of 
nonstandard varieties of English as powerless proletarians of low cultural and socioeconomic status. 
The asymmetry in attitudes towards dialects in this medium is achieved via linguistic devices, and the 
various chapters of the dissertation examine the lexical, syntactic, and textural means through which 
this is achieved. 

A major generalization is that in these movies, the naive child audience is presented with a 
social reality in which dialectal variations are systematically synthesized with variations in power and 
moral worth. The consequence is a differential portrayal of dialects in children's movies which 
demonstrate the workings of an ideology not immediately evident from the propositional content, 

where the portrayal of the dialects seems to be overtly neutral, but whose lexical choices, speech act 
transgressions, and non-reciprocal textural devices such as rudeness, to give a few examples, provide 
clear evidence of differential treatment. The results demonstrate how, via the control of the type and 
nature of various linguistic devices, the dominant ideology's prejudice towards such dialects of 
English is sustained. 

It is argued that a linguistic analysis of such data is necessary for the linguist interested not 
only in the application(s) of language, but more importantly, in the ideologies of language which 
reflect and sustain inequalities between groups. This project seeks not only to outline an in-depth 
theoretical apparatus for analyzing the language of inequality and prejudice, but in addition, strives to 
provide an intensive discursive analysis of the linguistic manifestation of such inequalities. 

Tsiang-Starcevic, Sarah 

The Discourse Functions of Subordinate Constructions in Classical Sanskrit Narrative Texts 

Hans Henrich Hock, Advisor 
23 August 1991 

There are three main grammatical means of indicating subordination in Classical Sanskrit: (i) 
non-finite verbal constructions, (ii) relative-clause/main clause constructions, and (iii) sentence 
adverbial constructions, as illustrated below. 

(i) tarn sundarirh kumarim drstva sa kamasaktah bhOtah / 

her-A lovely-A maiden-A see-abs he-N enamored-N be-tp-FV 
' Having seen the lovely maiden, he became enamored.' 



18 



(ii) yada sa tarn sundarim kumarlm drstavan tada kamasaktah bhutah / 

when-rel he-N her-A lovely-A maiden-A see-tvp-FV then-adv enamored-N be-tp-FV 
' When he saw the lovely maiden, then he became enamored.' 

(iii) sa tarn sundarim kumarlm drstavan / tena sa kamasaktah bhutah / 

he-N her-A lovely-A maiden-A see-tvp-FV theref-adv he-N enamored-N be-tp-FV 
'He saw the lovely maiden. Therefore , he became enamored.' 

While all three methods are able to express pragmatically subordinate relationships such as 
temporal and contingent relationships, and can be used in similar contexts as in the examples above, 
an examination of their usage across a range of contexts reveals that certain types of construction are 
favored in particular discourse contexts, and not used or used less frequently in others. 

The present investigation explores the correlation between type of subordination and type of 
discourse context based on a corpus of Classical Sanskrit narrative texts. In particular, the 
morphosyntactic properties and pragmatic interpretation of each type of construction are analyzed with 
respect to their utility for fulfilling particular discourse functions. These functions include presenting 
story situations and their interrelationships in a particular way, as well as rhetorical and stylistic 
functions such as building the rhetorical structure of the texts, and promoting textual cohesion and a 
smooth narrative flow. 

Thus, identifying the discourse functions of the subordinate constructions is useful for 
understanding the contribution of individual grammatical constructions to textual presentation, as well 
as for understanding the contribution of a discourse perspective to syntactic description. 

Wu, Mary Ann 

Interpreting Complex Noun Phrases in Mandarin Chinese 

Peter Lasersohn, Advisor 

22 April 97 

This work concentrates on the connection between the linguistic form and indefinite and 
definite readings of Mandarin Chinese (MC) complex noun phrases (i.e., NPs with prenominal 
modifier phrases marked by the particle de (MOD-de), and/or demonstratives (DEM), numerals 
(NUM), and the quantifier mei 'every/each'). 

I assume the standard view that define NPs require uniqueness in contextually selected sets 
and that focus associates an expression with a set of alternatives which are derived according to focus 
interpretation rules and are subject to contextual constraints. 

It has been observed that word order and into national prominence in MC NPs tend to correlate 
with definite and indefinite readings of the NPs. Based on recurring interpretive patterns in MC, I 
show that in MC, definite readings are expressed by lexical and constructional meaning, the 
interpretation of focus, and contextually furnished constraints jointly in a systematic way. More 
specifically, ordering MOD-de before DEM/NUM (i.e., adjoining MOD-de to NP) indicates focus on 
MOD-de and a presupposition that the focus-induced alternative set associated to the resulting NP 
encodes cardinality information regarding the set of contextually relevant entities satisfying the 
descriptive content of the NP. The extensional content of an expression, which I treat as the 'purely 
truth-conditional' aspect of meaning interpretation, may be computed compositionally in regular 
model-theoretic terms and could be the same for definite and indefinite NPs, for demonstrative NPs 
with regular or more stringent requirements on the set in which uniqueness must hold, and for 
quantificational NPs with optional vs. obligatory de re readings. The interpretive differences observed 
of such NPs follow from presuppositions (introduced by DEM and by adjoining MOD-de to NP) 



19 



coupled with focus-induced alternatives associated to the NPs. Crucially, the presuppositions together 
with the alternatives associated to the NP systematically restrict the contexts (i.e., Models) in which 
the NP may be used felicitously, and the observed interpretive differences fall out. 

STUDENT PROGRESS 

Students Who Passed the Qualifying Examination 

Alghazo, Manal Hsu, Pihsia Kuo, Shiun-Zu 

Baker, Wendy Ito, Kiwako Merrill, Megan 

Chung, Yu-Sun Ku, Jee Nollett, Angela 

Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko Kumar, Avatans 

Students Admitted to the Ph.D. Program 

(With title of obligatory research paper) 

Adra, AH 

Epenthesis and Syncope in Syrian Arabic 

Elsaadany, Kamel 

Language, Gender and Religion: A Study of the Style and Discourse 
in the Novels ofNaguib Mahfouz 

Jung, Kyu Tae 

Englishization as a Discourse Strategy in Korean Advertising 

Lee, Joo-Kyeong 

Phonetic Explanation of C/V Place Assimilation in OT 

Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko 

Functions and Usage of the Predicate Pattern NO DA in Japanese Discourse 

Ph.D. Preliminary Examinations Passed 

Baxter, David, (23 April 1997) Makino, Reiko (18 December 1996) 

Chen, Shu Fen ( 1 8 December 1 996) Min, Su (3 April 1 997) 

Frenck, Susan (9 May 1997) Rhee, Seok-Chae (7 March 1997) 

Good, Robert (8 April 1997) Suzuki, Yasuko (20 December 1996) 

Jung, Kyu Tae ( 12 May 1997) You, Yu-Ling (9 December 1996) 

Lin, Huei-Ling (21 March 1997) Yunick, Stanley (26 November 1996) 

Ph.D. Dissertations Defended 

Cho, Sae-Youn (30 July 1996) Lee, Jae- Young (23 August 1996) 

Honegger, Mark (19 May 1997) Pandey, Anita (24 June 1997) 

Kim, Byong-Kwon (3 1 July 1996) Pandey, Anjali (8 July 1997) 

Kim, Eun Joo (18 November 1996) Suzuki-Kose, Yuriko (14 April 1997) 

Ko, Kijoo (13 January 1997) Wu, Mary (22 April 1997) 
Kutryb, Carol (7 August 1997) 

20 



Ph.D. Dissertations in Progress 

Alho, Irja Helena 

Partitive Case, Quantification, and Aspect in Finnish 
Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Baxter, David 

English Goal Infinitives 
Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Chang, Feng-Ling (Margaret) 
Implementations of a Concept/Semantics Based Lexical Database in CALL Lessons 

Chin-Chuan Cheng, Advisor 

Chen, Shu Fen 

Some Issues in the Translation of Sanskrit Buddhist Scriptures in Middle Chinese 

Hans Henrich Hock, Advisor 

Cho, Jae Ohk 

Feature Interpretations and Morphology-Syntax Interface 
Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 

Cho, Sookhee 

Phonetic Representation in Generative Grammar 
Chin-Woo Kim, Advisor 

Frenck, Susan 

Gender in Natural Conversation and Literary Discourse: A Sociolinguistic Study 

Braj B. Kachru, Advisor 

Good, Robert 

Components of Production in the Writing of Chinese Characters by Students of Chinese as a Foreign 

Language 
Jerome Packard, Advisor 

Hartkemeyer, Dale 

*V: An Optimality-Theoretic Examination of Vowel Deletion 
Charles W. Kisseberth, Advisor 

Jung, Kyu Tae 

Contact and Convergence of English in Korean 
Braj B. Kachru, Advisor 

Kapper, James 

Michif: An Unusual Case of Language Mixture 
Hans Henrich Hock, Advisor 

Kovach, Edward 

Morphological Parsing Using Register Vector Grammars 
Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 



21 



Kutryb, Carol 

Differences Between Full and Reduced Relative Clauses 
Susan Garnsey, Advisor 

Lai, Chiu-Yueh 

The Nature of Chinese Writing and Entry Dialect in Chinese Dictionaries 

Ladislav Zgusta, Advisor 

Leary, Steven 

On Thematic Relations and Subcategorization 
Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 

Lin, Huei Lin 

The Syntax-Morphology Interface in the Case of Verbal Compounding in Mandarin Chinese 

James Yoon, Advisor 

Lu, Wen-Ying 

Sentence-Final Particles in Modern Mandarin Chinese as Attitude Markers 
Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Min, Su Jung 

News as Ideology: Linguistic Analysis of US News Coverage of South Korea 

Yamuna Kachru, Advisor 

Mishra, Mithilesh K. 

Aspects ofMaithili Phonology 
Charles W. Kisseberth, Advisor 

Makino, Reiko 

Japanese So- Called Formal Nouns Koto and Maro 
Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Obenaus, Gerhard 

The Disambiguating Properties of Collocations 
Chin-Chuan Cheng, Advisor 

Rau, Nalini 

Verb Agreement in Kannada 
Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Rhee, Seok-Chae 

The Phonetics and Phonology of Stop Release and Nonrelease 
Chin-Woo Kim, Advisor 

Smets, Martine 

Developing a GB Analysis of Romance Languages with Pappi 
Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 

Suzuki, Yasuko 

The Prosody and Syntax of Light Elements in West-Germanic Alliterative Verse: 

Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives on Kuhn 's Laws 

Hans Henrich Hock, Advisor 



22 



You, Yu-Ling 

Defining Topic Continuity for Interpreting Chinese Zero-Anaphora 
Chin-Chuan Cheng, Advisor 

Yunick, Stanley 

Complex Genres and Language Learning: A Longitudinal Study 
Braj B. Kachru, Advisor 

RESEARCH AND SERVICE 
New Publications 

Antonsen, Elmer 

♦ Editor, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 23.2 (Fall 1993): Papers in General Linguistics 
[publ., October 1996] 4 Editor, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 25.1 (Spring 1995): Papers in 
General Linguistics [publ. February 1997] 4 'Runes and Romans on the Rhine,' Proceedings of the 
International Symposium on Frisian Runes and Neighboring Traditions, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 
26-29 January 1994, Amsterdamer Beitrage zur dlteren Germanistik 45.5-13 (1996) ♦ 'Uphill with 
Dasypodius: On the Lexicographic Treatment of Weak Nouns in German', Historical, Indo- 
European, and Lexicographical Studies: A Festschrift for Ladislav Zgusta on the Occasion of his 70th 
Birthday, 233-51, (ed.) by Hans Henrich Hock, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997 ♦ 
'On Phonological Reconstruction: "Weil die Schrift immer strebt...'", Studies in the Linguistic 
Sciences 25:1.1-15 (Spring 1995 [publ. February 1997]) ♦ 'On Runological and Linguistic Evidence 
for Dating Runic Inscriptions', Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Runes and 
Runic Inscriptions, Gottingen, August 1995 [in press]. 

Cheng, Chen-Chuan 

♦ Hyundai pukkyung Sangsung Umunlon (Modern Beijing Generative Phonology, Korean 
Translation of A Synchronic Phonology of Mandarin Chinese by Ik-sang Eom). 102 pp. Seoul: 
Hokkobang, 1996 4 Review of China Today: Language Reform. International Review of Chinese 
Linguistics 1 4- CCPY32, a 32-bit pinyin input for Chinese Windows, licensed by Global Information 
Systems Technology Inc, 1997 4 English Word Usage: A Software Package. Republic of China 
Multimedia English Learning and Instruction Association, 1997. 

Cole, Jennifer 

4- (to appear) "Integrating the Phonetics and Phonology of Tone Alignment," Papers in 
Laboratory Phonology, V. Cambridge University Press 4 (to appear) "Deconstructing Metaphony," 
in Jose' Hualde, ed., Rivista di Linguistica 4 with C. Kisseberth. (1997). ~ Restricting Multi-Level 
Constraint Evaluation: Opaque Rule Interaction in Yawelmani Vowel Harmony," in K. Suzuki and 
D. Elzinga (eds.) Proceedings of the Arizona Phonology Conference, pp. 18-38. 

Green, Georgia M. 
Publication Contracts: 4 (with R. D. Levine) Readings in Head-Driven Phrase Structure 
Grammar. Cambridge University Press 4 The Rise and Fall of Generative Semantics, [article in an 
annotated collection of papers by Robin Lakoff], (ed.) by Laurel Sutton. Oxford University Press 4- 
HPSG. MTT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences. MTT Press 4 In preparation: (with J. L. 
Morgan) A note on using larger lexicons to expand application domains. (To be submitted to 
Computational Linguistics). 



23 



Hock, Hans Henrich 

♦ Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship: An Introduction to 
Historical and Comparative Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1996. (Trends in Linguistics, 
93. Also as paperback.) (pp. xv, 602) [With Brian D. Joseph.] ♦ Historical, Indo-European, and 
Lexicographical Studies: A Festschrift for Ladislav Zgusta on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday. 
Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997, (pp. vi, 393) [edited volume ♦ Who's On First: Toward a 
Prosodic Account of P2 clitics, Approaching Second: Second Position Clitics and Related 
Phenomena, ed. by A. Halpern and A. Zwicky, 199-270., Stanford: CSLI Publications, 1996 ♦ 
Pre-Rgvedic Convergence Between Indo-Aryan (Sanskrit) and Dravidian? A Survey of the Issues and 
Controversies, Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit 
Language, ed. by J. E. M. Houben, 17-58, Leiden: Brill, 1996 ♦ Subversion or Convergence? 
The Issue of Pre-Vedic Retroflexion Reconsidered, SLS 23: 2. 73-115, 1996 ♦ Nexus and 
'Extraclausality' in Vedic, or 'sa-fige' All Over Again: A Historical (Re)Examination, Historical, 
Indo-European, and Lexicographical Studies ... [see above], 49-78, 1997 ♦ Indology Beyond 
Sanskrit - But Also Including Sanskrit. Proceedings of the International Seminar on Indology-Past, 
Present, Future (Pune, January 1997), In Press ♦ Review of Substrata Versus Universals in Creole 
Genesis: Papers from the Amsterdam Creole Workshop, April 1985, ed. by Pieter Muysken and 
Norval Smith, World Englishes, In Press. 

Ito, Natsumi 

(The following articles were published in Japan) ♦ Kotoba Wa Minna Ikiteiru: Nihongo no 
Kyooshitsu Yori, (1997). Shineigo Kyooiku - The New English Classroom, January, 329: 30-32. 
Tokyo: Sanyusha Shuppan ♦ Kotoba Wa Minna Ikiteiru: Hyookahyoo to Zigyoosankan no Susume, 
(1997). Shineigo Kyooiku - The New English Classroom, February, 330: 30-32. Tokyo: Sanyusha 
Shuppan ♦ Kotoba Wa Minna Ikiteiru: Sekai no Eigo, (1997). Shineigo Kyooiku - The New English 
Classroom, March, 331: 30-32. Tokyo: Sanyusha Shuppan. 

Kachru, Braj B. 

♦ The Paradigms of Marginality, World Englishes, 15(3), (1996), pp. 241-255 ♦ World 
Englishes and English-using Communities, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics Cambridge, 
England: Cambridge University Press. (1997), pp. 66-87 ♦ Past-Imperfect: The Otherside of 
English in Asia. In World Englishes 2000, edited by Michael Forman and Larry E. Smith. 
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, (in press), also in English is an Asian Language: The Thai 
Context, edited by Mark Newbrook. Sydney, Australia: Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. (in press) ♦ 
World Englishes 2000: Resources for Research and Teaching. In World Englishes 2000, edited by 
Michael Forman and Larry E. Smith. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press; ♦ English as an Asian 
Language. In English is an Asian Language: The Philippine Context, edited by M. L. S. Bautista. 
Sydney, Australia: Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. (in press). 

Kachru, Yamuna 

♦ Culture, Variation and Languages of Wider Communication in Linguistics, Language 
Acquisition, and Language Variation: Current Trends and Future Prospects, Georgetown University 
Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1996. 178-195 ♦ Culture and Argumentative Writing in 
World Englishes. In Michael Forman and Larry E. Smith (ed.) World Englishes 2000, University of 
Hawaii Press. (In Press) ♦ Cultural Meaning and Contrastive Rhetoric in English Education. In 
Vijay Bhatia (ed.) Symposium on Discourse and Genre. In World Englishes, 1997 (in press) ♦ 
Culture, Variation and English Language Education. In Steve Cornwell, et.al. (eds.) JALT 96 
Conference Proceedings, (in press) ♦ Culture and Communication in India. In Nirmal Mattoo and 
S.N. Sridhar (eds.) Ananya (in press). 



24 



Kim, Chin-Woo 

4- "The Umlaut Rule in Korean Revisited", in Essays in Honor of Prof. Ki-Moon Lee, pp. 
138-155, Seoul, Korea: Shin'gu Publishing Co., 1996a ♦ "Globalization of Korean: Transplant or 
Implant?", in Eui-Hang Shin ed.: Korea in the World: Past, Present and Future, Columbia SC: 
University of South Carolina, 1996b ♦ "Theory and Data in Linguistics", in Festschrift for Professor 
Hang-Geun Cho, Chongju, Korea: Chungbuk National University Press, 1996c 4 Discussion on 
J.J. Ree: "The Korean Language Education: Problems and Methods," in Committee for SAT-II 
Korean Committee ed.: Teaching Korean in the U.S., Los Angeles, CA: Academia Korean, 1997a 4 
"Notes on Teaching Korean Phonology," in Committee for SAT-II Koreana ed.: Teaching Korean in 
the U.S., Los Angeles, CA: Academia Koreana, 1997b 4 "The Structure of Phonological Units in 
Han'gul," in Y-K. Kim-Renaud ed.: The Korean Alphabet: Its History and Structure, pp. 145-160, 
Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 1997c ♦ "Autosegmental Phonology in Optimality 
Theory," in An Introduction to Optimality Theory, Seoul, Korea: Linguistic Society of Korea ♦ 
"Phonology for the Hearer," in Hwang Gye-Jung ed.: Aesthetics of Language, pp. 341-372, Seoul, 
Korea: Kukhak-Caryowon, 1997. 

Lasersohn, Peter 

♦ 'Events in the Semantics of Collectivizing Adverbials', to appear in Events and Grammar, 
S. Rothstein, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht ♦ 'Bare Plurals and Donkey Anaphora', 
Natural Language Semantics 5.1.79-86 (1997) 4- 'Adnominal Conditionals', in Proceedings from 
Semantics and Linguistic Theory VI, T. Galloway and J. Spence, eds., CLC Publications, Ithaca, 
NY (1996). 

Morgan, Jerry L. 

4 In preparation: (with G. M. Green) A note on using larger lexicons to expand application 
domains. (To be submitted to Computational Linguistics). 

Pandharipande, Rajeshwari 
Book: 4 A Grammar of Marathi, Routledge, London (July 1997); Chapter: 4 Is Genetic 
Connection Relevant in Code-Switching?: Evidence from South Asian Languages, In Rodolfo 
Jacobson (ed.), Code-Switching Worldwide (in press for Mouton). Manuscripts: 4 Research 
Project "A Sociolinguistic Analysis of the Language in the Hindu Temples in Bombay", the fieldwork 
was carried out in Bombay, India during the period of January-March, 1997 4 Completed the Project 
for the Research Board Grant (96-97) on "Language of Religion Form and Function," the first draft of 
the manuscripts which includes ten chapters is now ready for editing 4 Select Bibliography of 
Language of Religion: Cross Religious Perspective. 

Wu, Mary 

4 v Meaning and Form: Computing Definite and Uniqueness Readings of Complex Noun 
Phrases in Mandarin Chinese'. In Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 1995, 25:1 [publ. February 
1997], 145-157, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 

Zgusta, Ladislav 

Articles: 4 Names and Their Study. Concluding Remarks Section of Name Studies: An 

International Handbook of Onomastics. Edited by E. Eichler, G. Hilty, H. Loffler, H. Steger, and 

L. Zgusta. Vol. II. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1996, pp. 1876-1890 4 Systematicka Terminologie po 

Triceti Letech [Systematic Terminology After Thirty Years] 4 In Acta onomastica (Venovano k 100. 

Vyroci Narozeni Univ.) Prof. PhDr. Vladimira 4 Smilauera, DrSc, Zakladatele Moderni Ceske 
Onomastiky), 36, 1995, pp. 262-272; Scholarly German Bilingual Lexicography in Imperial Russia 
(Hoi treis archiereis). Germanistische Linguistik, 134-135, 1996, pp. 87-114. Books Edited: 4 
Name Studies: An International Handbook of Onomastics. Edited by E. Eichler, G. Hilty, H. 
Loffler, H. Steger, and L. Zgusta. Vol. II. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1996 4 Name Studies: An 

25 



International Handbook of Onomastics. Edited by E. Eichler, G. Hilty, H. Loffler, H. Steger, and 
L. Zgusta. Index Vol. Berlin: de Gruyter, 1996. Reviews: Has written reviews of a number of 
reference books, including bilingual dictionaries of Uzbek, Thai, Tatar, Maori, and Turkic languages, 
as well as of books on Russian placenames and translation theory. 



Papers Read 

Chen, Shu-Fen 

♦ "Vowel Length in Middle Chinese Based on Sanskrit Buddhist Transliteration" presented at 
Eighth North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics (NACCL-8). University of Illinois at 
Urbana-Champaign. May, 1996 ♦ "A Study of Chinese Loanwords from Sanskrit" will be presented 
at Sixth International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (ICCL-6) Sinological Institute, Leiden 
University, the Netherlands. June 1997. 

Chen, Si-Qing 

♦ "The Automatic Identification and Recovery of Chinese Acronyms". Paper presented at the 
Eighth North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, May 17-19, 1996, UIUC. 

Cheng, Chen-Chuan 

♦ "In Search of Cognitive Basis of Common Chinese Characters". The Ninth North 
American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Victoria, Canada, May 2-4, 1997 ♦ Discussant, 
Southeast Asian Population Symposium, University of Illinois, March 10-13, 1997 ♦ Organized a 
Workshop for Chinese Online Reading Assistant, Urbana, October 12-13, 1996 ♦ Organized a 
Workshop for Chinese Online Reading Assistant, Madison, Wisconsin, April 26-27, 1996. 

Cole, Jennifer 

♦ 1997, Feb.: "Is Spanish Spirantization a Unitary Process?: Some Experimental Evidence," 
with J.I. Hualde (presenter) and K. Iskarous, Linguistics Symposium on Romance Languages 27 ♦ 
1996, Nov.: "Metrical Structure and Non-Initiality in Sukuma Tone," with E. Hsiao, Mid- 
Continental Workshop in Phonology, 2 ♦ 1996, Nov.: "Testing the Transitivity Hypothesis in 
Optimality Theory," with G. Dell and D. Guest, Mid-Continental Workshop in Phonology, 2 ♦ 
1996, Oct.: "Deconstructing Metaphony," University of Illinois Linguistics Seminar ♦ 1996, July: 
"Integrating the Phonetics and Phonology of Intonation," Invited Commentary at LabPhon V. 

Donchin, Rina 

♦ Presented a paper on Reading Comprehension of Students Whose Parents are Israelis at the 
Annual Conference of the NAPH, Memphis, TN, June 1996 ♦ Organized a panel on the methodology 
of teaching Hebrew at the Midwestern Jewish Studies Association, Chicago, October 1996 ♦ 
Conducted a workshop on Israeli women writers, Chicago Chapter of Haddassah, May 1996 ♦ 
Conducted a 2 day Intensive Hebrew ulpan for Youthworks in New York, February 1997 ♦ 
Supervised the Intensive Hebew ulpan, UIUC Intersession, May 1996. 

Green, Georgia M. 

♦ Distinguishing Main and Subordinate Clause; the ROOT of the Problem, HPSG-96 
Conference (Marseille, France 5/96) ♦ How to Get People with Words; Strategies for Manipulating a 
Witness, Law and Society Conference (Glasgow, 7/96), (also presented at a departmental Seminar 
Fall 1996) ♦ Structure, Goals, and Comprehensibility Revisited, American Society of Newspaper 
Editors Workshop (Chapel Hill, 10/96) ♦ Modeling Grammar Growth: Universal Grammar Without 
Innate Principles or Parameters, GALA-97 Language Acquisition Conference (Edinburgh, 4/96). 
Chaired: ♦ Linguistic Society of America 1/97. 

26 



Hock, Hans Henrich 

♦ "Many Small Steps for Farsi, a Few Giant Steps for Vedic: Vedic Pluti and Verb 
Accentuation Revisited", June 1996, East Coast Indo-European Conference, Yale University* ♦ 
"Through a Glass Darkly: Modern Colonialist Attitudes vs. Textual and General Prehistoric Evidence 
on "Race" in Vedic Indo- Aryan Society", October 1996, Aryan and Non- Aryan in South Asia: 
Evidence, Interpretation and Ideology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,* and November 1996, 
South Asia Brownbag, University of Illinois 4- "More on the Historical Dialectology of Convergence: 
The case of South Asia", November 1996, Workshop on Language Contact, Ohio State University ♦ 
"Vasat, vat, vet A New Etymological Account Based on the Vedic Evidence", January 1997, 10th 
World Sanskrit Conference, Bangalore, India 4- "How Null is Null? Emptyheadedness and 
Headlessness in Sanskrit and Their Consequences for Agreement", January 1997, International 
Seminar on "Nulls", Delhi University* ♦ "Indology Beyond Sanskrit - But Also Including Sanskrit", 
International Seminar on Indology-Past, Present, Future, January 1997, University of Puna, India, 
and Centre for Linguistics and English, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi* ♦ "Bring the 
Paper, COMMA, boy: Prosody vs. Syntax", February 1997, Ohio State University* 4- "Bring the 
Paper, COMMA, Boy, or: The Joys of Prosody", March 1997, Linguistics Seminar, University of 
Illinois, (invited talks marked by an asterisk). Session Chair: 4- October 1996, Aryan and Non- 
Aryan in South Asia: Evidence, Interpretation and Ideology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 4- 
January 1997, 10th World Sanskrit Conference, Bangalore, India 4- January 1997, International 
Seminar on "Nulls", Delhi University 4- January 1997, University of Puna, India,: 

Honegger, Mark 

4- "A Phonological Account of the "Adverb Effect" and that-t Violations," at the Mid- American 
Linguistics Conference, University of Kansas, Nov. 1-2 4- "A Unified Account of Word Order in 
Configurational and Non-Configurational Languages," at the Chicago Linguistic Society Annual 
Meeting, University of Chicago, April 17-19 4- "Modality Tests in Malay," at the Southeast Asia 
Linguistics Society Annual Meeting, University of Illinois, May 9-11. 

Kachru, Braj 

4- "Past Imperfect: The Otherside of English in Asia," special lecture organized by the Japan 
Association of Language Teachers (JALT) and the Japan Association of College English Teachers 
(JACET), Sendal, Japan, October 19, 1996 4- "The Otherside of English: Norms, Models, and 
Identities," JALT and Miyazaki Municipal University, Miyazaki, Japan, October 22, 1996 4- "Past 
Imperfect: The Otherside of English in Asia," special lecture, JALT, Kobe Chapter, Kobe, Japan, 
October 27, 1996 4- "World Englishes: Models, Creativity, and Identities," Featured Speaker 
Workshop the 22nd Annual International JALT Convention, Hiroshima, Japan, November 2, 1996 ♦ 
"Teaching World Englishes," Featured Speaker Workshop the 22nd Annual International JALT 
Convention, Hiroshima, Japan, November 3, 199; 4- "Opening Borders with World Englishes: 
Theory in the Classroom," Plenary address, the 22nd Annual International JALT Convention, 
Hiroshima, Japan, November 4, 1996 4- "Raja Rao: Madhyam and Mantra, " paper at the symposium 
on "Word as Mantra: The Art of Raja Rao," honoring Raja Rao at the University of Texas at Austin, 
March 18, 1997 4- "Caliban's Creative Chaos," Jubilee lecture, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, May 1, 1997. 

Kachru Yamuna 

4- Cultural Pluralism and English Textbooks in South Asia and the USA. Paper presented at 
AILA 96 (International Congress of Applied Linguistics), Jyvaskyla, Finland, August 6, 1996 4- 
Culture, Context and Writing in South Asia: Argumentational Persuasion. Paper presented at AILA 
96 (International Congress of Applied Linguistics), Jyvaskyla, Finland, August 6, 1996 4- Culture, 
Variation and English Language Education. Paper presented at the Japan Association of Language 

27 



Teachers Conference 1996, Hiroshima, Japan, November 2, 1996 4 Creativity in Conversation: 
Projecting Identities. Paper presented at Japan Association of Language Teachers Conference 1996, 
Hiroshima, Japan, November 2, 1996 4 Teaching Conventions of Writing in World Englishes. 
Paper presented at Japan Association of Language Teachers Conference 1996, Hiroshima, Japan, 
November 3, 1996 4 Culture and Argumentation. Plenary paper presented at the Third International 
Conference of the International Association for World Englishes, Honolulu, Hawaii, December 19, 
1996 4 World Englishes and Second Language Acquisition. Paper presented at the SALA 18 (South 
Asian Language Analysis Conference), New Delhi, January 8, 1997. Panels Organized: 4 
Symposium on Critical Linguistics and Language Education at AILA '96 (International Congress of 
Applied Linguistics), Jyvaskyla, Finland, August 6,1996 4- Panel on Language and Ideology at 
SALA 18 (South Asian Language Analysis Conference), New Delhi, January 6, 1997. 

Kim, Chin-Woo 

4 "Autosegmental Phonology and Optimality Theory," Workshop in Optimality Theory, 
August 4-7, 1996, Seoul, Korea: Linguistic Society of Korea 4- Discussant on J.J. Ree: "Education 
of Korean Language Abroad," The 2nd SAT-U Korean Colloquium, September 25-26, 1996, 
Newport Beach, CA (invited) 4- "Notes on Teaching Korean Phonology," The 3rd SAT-U Korean 
Colluquium, April 3-5, 1997, Chicago, IL (invited) 4 "Korean as a Foreign Language and as a 
Heritage Language," The 2nd International Conference on Korean Studies, Keimyung University, 
Taegu, Korea, June 25-28, 1997 (invited) 4- "Unrelease in Korean Stops Revisited," (with Seok- 
Chae Rhee) Harvard Workshop in Korean Linguistics VII, July 11-13, 1997, Boston, MA 4 
"Immunity in Place Assimilation in Neutralization," (with Seok-Chae Rhee) Seoul International 
Conference on Linguistics V, August 11-16, 1997, Seoul, Korea 4- "A Future Direction of Korean 
Linguistics" (a tentative title), The 6th International Conference on Korean Linguistics 
Commemorating the 600th Anniversary of king Sejong's Birth, The Han'gul Research Society, 
Seoul, Korea, October 12-16, 1997 (invited) 4- "On the Origin and Structure of Han'gul (a tentative 
title), International Symposium on Literacy and Writing Systems, December 1997, Chunnam National 
University, Kwangju, Korea. Symposia Organized: 4- "Computerization and Modernization of 
Korean," The 5th International Conference on Korean Studies, August 8-10, 1997, International 
Society of Korean Studies, Osaka, Japan 4- "Literacy and Writing Systems in Asia: Commemorating 
the 600th Anniversary of King Sejong's Birth," December 1996 (Kwangju, Korea) and May 1997 
(Urbana, IL). 

Lasersohn, Peter 

4- 'Pragmatic Halos', Colloquium Series of the Departments of Linguistics and Philosophy 
and the Program in Cognitive Science, Indiana University, October 31, 1996 4- 'Adnominal 
Conditionals', Semantics and Linguistic Theory VI, Rutgers University, April 26-28, 1996. 

Morgan, Jerry L. 

4- "Gaspar: A Research Project in Applied Computational Linguistics", Linguistics Seminar, 
March 13, 1997. 

Pandharipande, Rajeshwari 

♦ "Thetis, Ganges, and Immortality: A Comparative Analysis" (with Albert Watanabe), 
UCLA Indo-European Conference, May 26, 1996 4- "Politeness as a Derived Concept: Evidence 
from Indian Languages," International Pragmatics Conference, Mexico City, July 4-9, 1996 ♦ 
"Structure and Function of the Language of Religion in South Asia: Challenges and Changes," 1 1th 
World Congress Applied Linguistics, August 1996, Jyvaskyla, Finland 4- "Contextualizing the Truth: 
Jnaneswari," Annual Conference on Vedanta, Department of Philosophy, University of Miami, 
Oxford, Ohio, November 1996 4- "Is There a Hindu English?: Issues in a New Genre in the U.S.," 
Third Annual Conference of International Association for World Englishes, Honolulu, HI, December 

28 



19-21, 1996 ♦ "Visions of Immortality in the Indian and Greek Mythology" (with Albert Watanabe), 
the Conference of American Philological Association, New York, December 30, 1996 ♦ "Are There 
Universal Constraints on Codemixing?: A Critical Review," Department of Foreign Languages and 
Linguistics, Bombay University, Mumbai, India, February 28, 1997 4- "Variable Patterns and 
Variable Constraints: Codemixing in Bilingual Discourse," American Association of Applied 
Linguistics Conference, Orlando, FL, March 8-11, 1997 4- Participated in a conference on "Toward 
Constructing a Language Learning Framework: The South Asian Case," South Asian Language 
Teachers' Association, Annual Meeting of Asian Studies, Chicago, April 15, 1997 ♦ "I am a River: 
Changing Roles of Women in India," Seminar on Roles of Asian Women, North Eastern University, 
Chicago, IL, April 8, 1997. Panels Organized: ♦ "Applied Linguistics in South Asia: Issues and 
Directions" (with Tej Bhatia), 1 1th World Congress of Applied Linguistics, Javaskyla, Finland, 
August 1996 ♦ "Bilingual Discourse: Issues and Perspectives" (with Tamara Valentine), AAAL 97, 
Orlando, FL, March 1997. 

Wu Mary 

♦ 'Meaning and Form: Computing Definite and Uniqueness Readings of Complex Noun 
Phrases in Mandarin Chinese,' paper presented at the Symposium on Referential Properties of 
Chinese Noun Phrases, City University of Hong Kong, June 24-25, 1996. 

Zgusta, Ladislav 

♦ Delivered keynote address at the EURALEX conference in Goteborg, Sweden, in August 
1996. 



Individual Recognition and Projects 

Cheng, Chin-Chuan 
Appointments: 4 Jubilee Professor of Liberal Arts and Sciences ♦ Director of Language 
Learning Laboratory 4- Professor of Linguistics ♦ Professor of Chinese ♦ Professor of English as an 
International Language ♦ Adjunct Professor of English, National Kaohsiung Normal University, 
Taiwan. Administration and Internal Services: 4- As Director of the Language Learning 
Laboratory, provided services of Audio, Microcomputer, and Video Labs, which lend technological 
support to language teaching for over 70 hours per week per lab; several thousand students used these 
facilities 4- Chair, Language Learning Laboratory Executive Committee 4- Member, Admission and 
Fellowships Committee, Department of Linguistics 4- Member, Graduate Student Orientation 
Committee, Department of Linguistics 4 Chair, Capricious Grading Committee, Department of 
Linguistics 4- Member, Library Committee, Department of Linguistics 4- Member, Campus Fulbright 
Grants Interviewing Committee 4- Member, Campus Computing and Networking Committee, 
Campus. Offices Held: 4- President (1996-97) of the International Association of Chinese 
Linguistics 4- Continued to serve as Member of Editorial Committee, International Sinology ♦ 
Continued to serve as Member of Advisory Board of Contemporary Chinese Linguistics 4- Continued 
to serve as Associate Editor of the Journal of Chinese Linguistics; Continued to serve as Advisor of 
the North American Region of the Chiang 4- Ching-Kuo Foundation for International Scholarly 
Exchange 4- Continued to serve as Publisher of a Chinese journal C-U Chinese Quarterly, a 
publication for University of Illinois Chinese communities including students, faculty, and alumni all 
over the worl; 4- Continued to serve as Editor, International Review of Chinese Linguistics 4- Director 
of CORA (Chinese Online Reading Assistant), an Internet project for creating Chinese reading lessons 
for advanced students. Research Grants: 4 Implemented the Chinese Online Reading Assistant on 
the Internet with a grant of $4,500 from the campus Educational Technologies Board 4- Received 
$27,000 from campus central administration and the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences for 
conversion of analog tape to digital audio of several languages for instructional delivery over the Web 

29 



♦ Received $45,000 from Educational Technologies Board for renovating a multimedia classroom of 
the Language Learning Laboratory. Courses Taught: 4- Linguistics 306 (Introduction to 
Computational Linguistics), Fall 1996 4 Linguistics 406 (Topics in Computational Linguistics), 
Spring 1997 4 Linguistics 490 (Independent Studies) 1996-97 4 Linguistics 499 (Thesis Research), 
199. 

Cole, Jennifer 

♦ Humanities Released Time Award (Univ. of Illinois), 1996-97. Individual Projects 
and Funded Research: 4 1/96 - 7/96. "The distribution of continuant and non-continuant 
allophones of /b,d,g/ in the speech of native and non-native speakers of Spanish," Co-PI (with J.I. 
Hualde). UIUC. Research Board: ♦ 6/94 - 5/97 "Phonological Encoding in Language 
Production," Co-PI (with Gary Dell). National Science Foundation. Other: Chair, 2nd Mid- 
Continental Workshop in Phonology, Univ. of Illinois, 1996. Cognitive Science/Artificial 
Intelligence awarded summer fellowships: to two of my students, Khalil Iskarous and Mee- 
Jin Ah. 

Donchin, Rina 

4 Member of the Executive Board, National Association of Professors of Hebrew (NAPH). 

Green, Georgia M. 
Professional Societies: 4 Program Committee for HPSG-97 Conference 4 Chair, 
Nominating Committee (Linguistic Society of America). Research Funding: 4 Toward a 
Personally Engaging Computer Companion (Contract with Yamaha Corporation to develop 
interactional pragmatics module for a "friendly" expert system). Service Activities: 4 Department 
of Linguistics, Advisory Committee, Student evaluation and examination committee (Chair), and 
Admissions and aid. Campus: 4 Committee on the Admission of Student- Athletes, Educational 
Policy Committee, Athletic Advisory Board, Chair, Academic Progress and Eligibility Committee, 
Executive Committee. Masters and Doctoral Committees: 4 Ph.D. committees: Chair: Suzuki- 
Kose, Reiko Makino, David Baxter Advisor: Witte (German Dept.). 

Hock, Hans Henrich 

4 Among other activities; organized, in cooperation with members of the Program of South 
Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, a lecture series, "India 50," and other events in recognition of 
India's 50th anniversary of independence 4 helped develop an India Studies fundraising initiative 
whose ultimate goal is a rotating professorship; 4 succeeded in establishing an exchange program 
between UIUC and Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India 4 Chair, Study Abroad Faculty 
Committee for Africa, West Asia, and South Asia, Spring 1997 4 Director for the 1999 Linguistic 
Institute of the Linguistic Society of America, to be hosted by the Department of Linguistics 4 
Member, Ad-hoc Committee of the Linguistic Society of America for the Society's 75th Anniversary 
Celebrations; and Trustee for UIUC to the American Institute of Indian Studies. Grants: Research 
Board grant for work on Post-Vedic South Asian convergence, 1996-1997 4 Scholars' Travel Fund 
grant for attending conferences in India, January 1997 4 Grant from MUCIA and the Study Abroad 
Office for a trip to Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India, April 1997, to conclude 
negotiations on an exchange program. Other honors: One of ten scholars recognized as 
vidyasagara at a ceremony by Mandakini, a society for the promotion of Sanskrit, at the 10th World 
Sanskrit Conference, Bangalore, India, January 1997 4 1996/1997 Alumni Discretionary Support 
Award, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences 

Ito, Natsumi 

4 Recognized as an outstanding Teaching Assistant of Japanese for the Fall 95 and Spring 96 
semesters. 

30 



Kachru, Braj 

♦ Director, the Center for Advanced Study, University of Dlinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Appointed in June, 1996 ♦ President, International Association for World Englishes. Elected for a 
two-year term beginning in 1997 ♦ Member, Committee to select the University Scholars, University 
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1997 4 Member, Committee on Endowed Appointments, 
University of Illinois, Urbana 1997- 4 Member, Tykociner Lecture Committee, College of 
Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1997- 4- Manuscript Reviewer for Oxford University 
Press, Oxford, England; University of Illinois Press, Urbana-Champaign; Routledge Publishers, 
London; Language and Society; and the Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 4 
Reviewer of research proposals for the University Grants Committee, Government of Hong Kong; 
Hong Kong; National University of Singapore, Singapore, and the Research Board, University of 
Illinois, Urbana. 

Kachru, Yamuna 

4 Invited to contributed a volume on Hindi in the London Oriental and African Language 
Library series, John Benjamins 4 Research Board Grant: 1996-97 4 Travel Grant from the 

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, UIUC, to attend the Third IAWE in Honolulu, HI 4- Travel 
Grant from the Scholars Travel Fund, UIUC, to attend the JALT 96 in Hiroshima, Japan 4- Invited to 
lecture on several campuses in South Africa in July- August, 1997 (declined) 4 Evaluated proposals 
for NSF. 

Kim, Chin-Woo 
Linguistics: 4 Admissions and Fellowships Committee 4 Advisory Committee 4 
Examinations and Evaluations Committee 4 Phonology Search Committee, Chair 4- Four Ph.D. 
committees. East Asian Languages and Culture: 4 Lectures and Brown-Bag Series 4- TA 
Committee 4 3rd Year Review Committee for S. Fujii and H. Yamashita 4- Three MA Exam 
committees. 

Lasersohn, Peter 

4- Chaired session on 'Quantification, Adverbs and Coordination', Annual Meeting of the 
Linguistic Society of America, Chicago, January 2-5, 1997 4 Reviewed manuscripts for Linguistics 
and Philosophy 4 Reviewed abstracts for Semantics and Linguistic Theory VII, Stanford University, 
March 21-23, 1997. Projects: Development of a pragmatic theory of vagueness and semantic 
granularity 4 Event-mereological semantics for plurality and coordination 4- Type-theoretic 
generalization of distributivity operators. 

Morgan, Jerry L. 
Research Funding: 4 Toward a Personally Engaging Computer Companion (Contract 
with Yamaha Corporation to develop interactional pragmatics module for a "friendly" expert system). 

Pandharipande, Rajeshwari 

4- Campus Research Board (UIUC) Grant (1996-97) for the Research project entitled, "Form 
and Function of Language of Religion: Cross-Religious perspectives" 4 General Education Course 
Development Award (UIUC) for Summer 1997 for developing a course entitled, "Hinduism in the 
United States" 4 Scholars' Travel Grant (URJC) to organize a panel on "Applied Linguistics in South 
Asia: Issues and Directions" 4- Nominated as member of the National Committee on South Asian 
Languages Association 4 Evaluated as "Outstanding Teacher" for Hindi 305 (Fall 1996). 
Committee Work: 4- Fall 96: Coordinator for the Hindi Program, Department of Linguistics 4- 
Member of the Advisory Committee, Department of Linguistics 4 Member of the Campus Committee 
on The Asian American Studies 4 Student Advisor, Program for the Study of Religion 4- LAS 
General Education Committee. Courses Taught: 4 Fall 1996 (1) Asian Mythology (Religious 

31 



Studies/Asian Studies 104 ♦ Advanced Hindi (Hindi 305). Independent Study: Fall 96 ♦ Cohn 
Scholar's Program LAS: "Myth and Religion: Theory and Practice" 4- Landscape Architecture: 
Impact of Religion on Indian Architecture: A study of Ancient Sanskrit Texts ♦ Department of 
Russian Literature: Mysticism and Religious Symbolism: The Holy Fools in Russia ♦ Comparative 
Literature: Indian Theories of Literature and the Sanskrit Epics 4- Linguistics: Discourse Analysis of 
the Novels of Mohefouz; Spring 97 ♦ Landscape Architecture: Matskya Purana: Tracing the Roots 
of Indian Architecture ♦ Linguistics: Discourse Analysis (continued from the Fall). MA/Ph.D. 
Committees: ♦ Comparative Literature: Primary (co)Advisor for Ph.D. Dissertation on "From the 
room of one's own to the room in the house: A feminist discourse in the modern Indian Literature" 
(defended May 1996) 4- Institute of Communications: Primary (co) Advisor for Ph.D. Dissertation 
on "Discourse of post Independence communalism in India" (defended January 1997) 4- Russian 
Literature: (served on the committees), November 1996, preliminary examination for the Ph.D. 
dissertation "The Mysticism of the Holy Fools in Russia 4- Ph.D. Dissertation Defense of the 
dissertation "The new People in the Prose of Zinaida Hippius" (May 16, 1997) 4- Linguistics: 
Primary Advisor: Ph.D. Dissertation "A study of the literary Discourse in the Novels of Naguib 
Mahfouz" (May 13, 1997) 4- (served on the Ph.D. dissertation Committee) preliminary examination, 
dissertation title "Gender in natural Conversation and Literary Discourse; A sociolinguistics Study" 
(May 9, 1997); (served on the committee) preliminary examination dissertation tide "News as 
Ideology: Linguistics Analysis of US Newspaper coverage of South Korea" (April 1997) 4- (served 
on the committee) preliminary examination dissertation title "Complex genres and language learning: 
A longitudinal study" 4- School of Social Work: (served on the Ph.D. dissertation committee) 
preliminary examination dissertation title "Care-giving in Schizophrenia: A Constructivist Paradigm 
Approach to Understanding Asian Indian Families" (November 27, 1996) 4- Educational Psychology: 
(served on Ph.D. dissertation committee) "There's a Word from the Lord Today: A Cross-cultural 
Analysis of Sermons in Context" (April 8, 1997) 4- Landscape Architecture: (served on the MA 
committee) "The Mandala and the Sacred Landscape of the Traditional Hindu City" (November 1996). 

Zgusta, Ladislav 

4- Professor Emeritus, August 1995. Current Research Interests: 4- Major research 
interests include the theory and practice of lexicography, name studies, Indo-European linguistics, and 
the languages of Asia Minor. Current projects include an upcoming state-of-the-field article on the 
laryngeal and glottalic theories within Indo-European linguistics, to be included in the series of 
linguistic encyclopedias published by de Gruyter. Serves as editor for Lexicographica Series Major 
and the journal Lexicographica, and has been a frequent reviewer for Dictionaries, International 
Journal of Lexicography, Names, Language, Kratylos, and American Reference Books Annual. 

ALUMNI NEWS 

We are pleased again to include the following news notes from alumni and former colleagues. 
We anticipate hearing from more of you each year in order that this section will be one of the larger 
ones in the Newsletter. 

Nkonko Kamwangamalu 

(University of Natal (Durban)) 

Honors and Recognitions: Commissioned (by Richard Watts) to guest-edit a special issue 
of Multilingua (Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication), with a focus on 
Multilingualism in South Africa; appointed to the Board of the Linguistic Society of Southern Africa 
and to the Language Advisory Committee of the University of Natal in Durban (South Africa); and 
invited by the University of Namibia to act as external examiner for courses in Sociolinguistics. 
Individual Research Projects: Continuing work on the following projects: English and 
Englishes in Southern Africa; Language contact and codeswitching in Africa; Multilingualism and 

32 



identity in post-apartheid South Africa; Language display and construction of identity in a society in 
transition, South Africa; co-editing a book (with Sinfree Makoni of the University of Cape Town) 
entitled: Language and Institutions in Africa: Current Trends and Future Prospects; guest-editing a 
special issue of Multilingua entitled: Aspects of Multilingualism in Post-Apartheid South Africa. 
Papers Read: We Codes, They-Codes, and Codeswitching with English in Post- Apartheid South 
Africa, American Association for Applied Linguistics, Orlando, FL (8-11 March 1997); 
Multilingualism and Education Policy in Post-Apartheid South Africa, Fifth Conference of the 
International Society for the Study of European Ideas, Utrecht, The Netherlands, (18-24 August 
1996); Linguistic Frontiers in Africa: Reality and Implications for Education and Development, 
Colloquium on Harmonizing and Standardizing African Languages for Education and Development, 
University of Cape Town, South Africa, (1 1-14 July 1996); Owning 'The Other Tongue': The Case 
of English in Southern African, Sixteenth conference of South African Applied Linguistics 
Association, University of Zululand, South Africa, (8-10 July 1996). Publications: Articles: 
[forthcoming] Owning 'The Other Tongue': The Case of English in Southern Africa, Journal of 
Multilingual and Multicultural Development; [forthcoming] Multilingualism and Education Policy in 
Post-Apartheid South Africa, Language Problems and Language Planning; [forthcoming] Language 
Contact, Bilingualism and I-Languages, South African Journal of Linguistics; [forthcoming] 
Language Frontiers, Language Standardization, and Mother Tongue Education in Africa, South 
African Journal of African Languages; 1997, The Colonial Legacy and Language Planning in Sub- 
Saharan Africa: The Case of Zaire, Applied Linguistics 18, 1:69-85; 1996a, Sociolinguistic Aspects 
of siSwati-English Bilingualism, World Englishes 15, 3:295-306; 1996b, Advancement in Some 
Asian and African Languages, Studies in the Linguistics Sciences 23, 2:137-151. Chapters: 
English in Swaziland: Form and Function, In V. de Klerk (ed.), English Around the World: Focus 
on South African, 285-300, Amsterdam: Benjamins. 

Address your notes to: 

Newsletter 

Linguistics, 4088 FLB 

707 S. Mathews 

Urbana, IL 61801 

or fax us at (217) 333-3466, or send an e-mail message to: deptling@uiuc.edu 

PUBLIC EVENTS 

Linguistics Seminar 

The Linguistics Seminar offers a weekly forum for papers presented by graduate students and 
faculty. It normally meets Thursdays at 4:00 p.m. Since the last issue of the Newsletter, the 
following papers have been read. (Inquiries about and requests for available copies should be directed 
to the authors.) 

Green, Georgia M. 

Professor, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 
How To Get People With Words: The Linguistic Basis of Strategies for Manipulating a Witness, 

19 September 1996 

Ostensibly the purpose of questioning a party's witness, whether in cross-examination, or as 
part of mandated discovery opportunities, is to allow the opposing party to evaluate the evidence that 
the witness' testimony might provide. 



33 



However, because of the conditions under which a deposition is taken (sworn testimony, 
recorded verbatim, with no authority present to rule on the propriety or relevance of questions), a 
deposition is also an opportunity (even more than cross-examination) to collect sworn testimony for 
the purpose of impeaching the witness. A proper understanding of how speakers use language to 
negotiate and communicate meaning, framed in terms familiar from speech act theory and Grice's 
Cooperative Principle, reveals that well-known techniques for questioning witnesses exploit their 
trust in the default assumptions that govern this activity. 

As long as all parties know what game is being played, and what the rules are, and the 
possible moves and their consequences, the checks and balances of the adversarial system allow the 
rights of all parties to be protected. But this is only true as long as attorneys alert witnesses to 
manipulative strategies they may encounter, and officers of the court discourage attorneys from taking 
advantage of witnesses who answer in good faith, according to the only principles they know for 
participating in discourse. 

Kisseberth, Charles W. 

Professor, Tel Aviv University/UIUC 

Studying Emakhuwa Dialectology: Phonological/Socio-Historical 

Linguistic Dimensions 

3 October 1996 

In this talk, I will discuss my research on the Emakhuwa language (1977-1984, 1990- 
present). I will (a) give an overview of the distribution of Emakhuwa dialects (within the limits of 
present knowledge), (b) sketch some of the characteristic features of Emakhuwa phonology and 
morphology, (c) examine variations in the tonal systems of several varieties of Emakhuwa, and (d) 
discuss briefly two varieties of Emakhuwa that are of considerable socio-/historical linguistic interest: 
Zanzibari, the language of the descendants of freed slaves living in Durban, South Africa, and Ekoti, a 
fusion of Emakhuwa and Swahili spoken in Angoche on the Mozambican coast. While the major goal 
of the talk is to be informative (providing information about a major but little studied language of 
Africa), I will use the review of tonal variation in Emakhuwa to emphasize why Optimality Theory 
provides a better basis for understanding Bantu tone than a phenomena-driven theory of rules directly 
describing alternations. 

Lasersohn, Peter 

Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 

Adnominal Conditionals 

10 October 1996 

Although conditional constructions have been discussed extensively in the semantic literature, 
almost all attention has focused on cases where the work //"may be seen as connecting two sentences. 
A little noticed fact is that conditional clauses may also appear adnominally, as in the following 
examples: 

( 1 ) We all know the consequences if we fail. 

(2) The fine if you park in a handicapped spot is higher than the fine if your meter expires. 

(3) The location if it rains and the location if it doesn't rain are within five miles of each 

other. 



34 



In this talk, I will survey the properties of such adnominal conditional clauses; argue that the 
are in fact adnominal; present semantic, syntactic and phonological tests for distinguishing them from 
"ordinary" adverbial conditional clauses; and develop a compositional semantic analysis for them. I 
consider and reject analyses that maintain the idea that if is always a sentential connective by 
representing such examples as involving concealed questions or free relative clauses at Logical Form. 

In constructing a semantic analysis, we will naturally want to relate adnominal conditionals to 
ordinary conditionals. Ideally, this should be done in a way which does not force an ambiguity in the 
word if. I will argue that such an analysis is possible if we adopt a semantic theory in which 
sentences denote sets of events, rather than truth values; this allows us to revise the semantics of 
ordinary conditionals on the model of adnominal conditionals. 

Such an analysis forces a similar revision in the semantics of the other sentential connectives as 
well, resulting in an event-based version of prepositional logic. In such a system the standard truth 
tables are derivable as a consequence rather than being stipulated directly. I suggest this is desirable, 
since it opens the way for a uniform treatment of truth-functional and non-truth-functional 
connectives. 

Cole, Jennifer 

Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 

Deconstructing Metaphony 

17 October 1996 

This paper addresses the phonological treatment of metaphony in Romance, focusing mostly 
on the well-documented patterns of metaphony in Italian dialects. Metaphony refers to the one-step 
raising of a stressed vowel in forms that bear a certain morphosyntactic feature, such as person or 
gender, and includes the following set of vowel alternations: 

(1) The set of metaphonic alternations 

high mid Id --> [i] 

/o/-> [u] 
low mid /E/ — > [jE], [je] or [e] 

101 -> [wO], [wo], or [o] 
low /a/ --> [E], or [je] 

The central problem that Romance metaphony poses for phonological analysis, is how to get a 
one-step vowel raising to follow from an assimilation of vowel height triggered by the high vowels 
/i,u/. Guided by this question, the focus of recent research on metaphony has been on defining the 
right set of vowel height features and feature geometry that will provide a unified expression of the 
entire set of metaphonic vowel alternations. In this paper, I demonstrate that recent proposals for the 
analysis of metaphony as a unified phenomenon of vowel height assimilation do not fully succeed. 
The features and mechanisms adopted in these analyses fail on technical or empirical grounds, or 
confer excessive power to the theory, predicting a wide range of unattested assimilatory phenomena. I 
claim that the failure of these analyses derives from the assumption that metaphony constitutes a 
unified phenomenon of assimilation. 

On the basis of many similarities between metaphony and non-assimilatory vowel raising that 
occurs indiachronic sound change in many genetically diverse languages (Labov 1994), I argue that 
wholesale scalar raising occurs in metaphony as a secondary result of a primary assimilatory raising of 
only the high-mid vowels, which thereby neutralize with the high vowel triggers. This restricted 
assimilation leaves a gap in the vowel space, which is filled in by shifting the mid-low and sometimes 
also the low vowel upwards. The proposed analysis operates within a restricted theory of 
assimilation, and makes no special demands of feature theory or feature geometry. It invokes a 

35 



special, but independently required, rule of Vowel Shift, which accounts as well for the presence of 
metaphony in some dialects in the absence of a suffixal trigger. The scalar nature of Vowel Shift is 
attributed to the principle of Contrast Preservation. 

Sagarra, Nuria 

Graduate Student, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, UIUC 
L1/L2 Recognition Memory for Semantic, Lexical and Syntactical Information 

of Connected Discourse 
24 October, 1996 

Non native speakers (NNS) process input for meaning before they process input for form 
(VanPatten, 1995), but further research is required to determine if such tendency is still valid 
following comprehension. The present study means an adaptation of Sachs (1967) and delineates (a) 
how native speakers (NS) and non native speakers (NNS) retain meaning (semantic information) and 
form (lexical and syntactical information) shortly after comprehension of connected discourse, as well 
as (b) what differences exist between NS and NNS recognition memory. Sixteen NS and 56 NNS 
read 20 passages and, after each passage, read one recognition test sentence which was either identical 
or non identical to a sentence that had occurred in the passage. The results suggest that (1) both NS 
and NNS store meaning better than syntactical form, but only NS retain meaning better than lexical 
form, and (2) NS recognize meaning better than NNS, whereas NNS recognize lexical form better 
than NS. Thus, after comprehension, syntactical form become unnecessary and is easily forgotten, 
while meaning remains stores independently on the original form of the sentence. 

Miner, Edward 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 

Literacy and the Formation of Social Identity in Uganda 

7 November 1996 

'Literacy development' projects have been dominated by an assumption that 'literacy' 
corresponds to a universal set of context-independent cognitive skills, roughly equivalent to 'reason' 
(Goody and Watt 1968; Ong 1982). Objectified in this way, literacy can be talked about as something 
individuals or social groups either possess or do not. Similarly, the classical Language Planning 
model takes language itself to be an empirical 'object' to which attach features of "systematicity, 
distinctiveness, closure, and independence" (Fardon and Furniss 1994). In fact, language for 
planning purposes means standardized print-languages that emerge from the linguistic practices of 
elites. In postcolonial societies coping with the competing demands of national integration and 
ethnolinguistic accommodation, such assumptions have made it possible to talk about the 'rights' of 
languages as distinct from the rights of their speakers. The rhetoric of nation-building has often made 
reference to the liberatory effects of literacy on individuals, and the integrating effects of a single 
national language on ethnic minorities. Where the ex-colonial language remains the official medium of 
public discourse, defense of the status quo has generally focused on its political neutrality and 
developmental potential. Concommitantly, these discourses have tended to construct 'illiteracy' as the 
very failure of reason, and multilingualism as the enemy of modernization and democratization. 
Fardon and Furniss (1994: x) ask: "To what extent do the purported divisiveness and impracticality of 
multilingualism derive-not from the fact of people who are competent in diverse language practices- 
but from the way that language has been objectified and portrayed as the historical vehicle of attitudes 
and consequences?" Anderson (1983) argues that objectifications of standardized print-languages are 
central in the formation of 'imagined communities' of primodial national identities. It is through 
literate activity that individuals imagine communities to which they belong, most of the members of 
which they have never met. In Uganda, one theme emerging from media is anxiety over the lack of a 
Ugandan national identity, as well as the low levels of English literacy in the country. This 
dissertation project seeks to examine the following questions with reference to the case of Kampala, 
Uganda: (1) how are literacy practices implicated in the formation of social identities in urban 
multilingual environments?; (2) in such contexts, do attributions of literacy or illiteracy function to 

36 



legitimate existing patterns of uneven development?, and (3) is 'literacy' itself a term contested 
between social groups, and if so, to what extent do alternative models of literacy offer opportunities 
for social critique? 

Baron, Dennis 

Professor, Department of English, UIUC 
Don't Make English Official-Ban It Instead: An Update on Language Legislation 

in the United States 
14 November 1996 

More than 20 states have adopted official language laws, many of them in the past decade. 
Last Spring, the House of Representatives passed the Language of Government Act, which would 
make English the official language of the federal government and its representatives and eliminate the 
bilingual ballots provision of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. This term the U.S. Supreme Court will 
rule on the appeal of Arizona's official English statute, ruled unconstitutional by the Ninth Circuit 
Court of Appeals. 

Both Newt Gingrich and Bob Dole campaigned for official English this Fall, and the idea is 
supported not only by conservative Republicans and groups eager to shut down immigration, but also 
by many ecologists, teachers, population control advocates, "soccer moms," and other Americans 
generally considered to be liberals. 

I will briefly review the history of official language proposals in the US; summarize the two 
previous Supreme Court decisions relevant to official English (Meyer v. Nebraska, 1923, and Lau v. 
Nichols, 1974); then move on to a consideration of current legislation, court rulings, and public 
opinion on the matter. I will take a brief look at recent language policy in Quebec; discuss attempts to 
repeal the bilingual education act; and conclude with a modest proposal designed to enlighten the 
public and put an end to language strife in the US. 

Baxter, David 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 

Restrictions on Purpose Infinitives 

21 November 1996 

I will present an account of the conditions under which the infinitive phrase in a sentence like 
(1) can be interpreted as a purpose infinitive, describing a purpose for which an entity has been made 
available. 

1 . Jack brought the beans home to plant behind his house. 

Purpose infinitives are a syntactically and semantically uniform class of constructions. They 
have consistent internal and external syntax, and always represent the same kind of claim about the 
relation between the situations described by the modified phrase and the infinitive phrase. 

Despite this uniformity, there has been no simple and accurate statement of the conditions 
under which sentences with purpose infinitives are acceptable. Attempts to describe these conditions 
in terms of the semantics of the modified phrase fail to take into account the relation between the 
modified phrase situation and the infinitive phrase situation. Sentence (2) is judged bad while (1) is 
judged good, not because of the semantics of the modified phrase, which is identical, but because 
planting the beans behind his house is considered a plausible goal of Jack bringing the beans home, 
while leaving them at the market is not. 



37 



2. ?Jack brought the beans home to leave at the market. 

In fact, this is all that needs to be said. Once the semantic relation that a purpose infinitive 
represents is clearly defined, whether one can get a purpose interpretation for a given sentence of the 
form VP to VP in a given context depends entirely on whether one believes the putative purpose 
relation to be plausible. 

I will define explicitly the semantics of sentences containing purpose infinitives and 
demonstrate how the observed restrictions on such sentences follow from the definition. 

Wilbur, Ronnie 

Ph.D., Professor of Linguistics, Purdue University 

What do Brow Raises o in American Sign Language? 

5 December 1996. 

Non-manual markers are known to provide important linguistic information in a number of 
signed languages. Their functions include lexical identification, adding adverbial information, 
showing syntactic (c-command) domain, marking informational focus, among others. This paper 
addresses the contribution of brow raise ('br') to the myriad of structures in which it occurs (topic, left 
dislocation, yes/no question, relative clauses, wh-clefts, focused negatives and modals, conditional 
clauses, contrastive topicalization, clefts, and the focus associate of focus particles 'even' and 'only'). 
Previous reports claimed that 'br' performs a pragmatic function by indicating that information is 
presupposed, given, or otherwise not asserted. However, as we will show, this explanation cannot 
be extended to all the data. In particular, there are two types of counterexamples: (a) 'br' on structures 
that are new or asserted, and (b) no 'br' on structures that are clearly old and presupposed. 
Syntactically, 'br' is associated with A-bar positions. Within the minimalist framework, they can be 
seen as marking the checking domain (not the c-command domain) of [-wh] operators; they are the 
overt morphology of those operators. Semantically, brow position is indicated by operator type: 
raised is associated with [-wh], furrowed is associated with [+wh], and neutral is associated with the 
absence of an operator. 

World premiere! Data will be presented to indicate that 'br' also marks the abstract generic 
operator Gen that binds subjects of individual-level predicates (cf. Diesing 1992), as in 'A lion 
(usually) has a bushy tail' or 'Gold is a precious metal.' 

Iskarous, Khalil 

Graduate Student, UIUC 

Formant Transitions in Natural Speech 

6 February 1997 

Synthetic speech studies by Liberman et al. (1952, 1953) in the early fifties established that 
there are two acoustic cues for place of articulation of stops, the stop burst and the flanking vowel 
formant transitions. But in the sixties and seventies a number of prominent phoneticians who 
conducted experiments on natural speech expressed some doubt on the ability of formant transitions to 
discriminate between different stops (Lehiste and Peterson 1961; Fant 1973). Research by Kewely- 
Port on natural speech came to a similar conclusion (Kewely-Port 1983). She found that for some 
vowels, the formant transitions from different places of articulation are quite different and do not 
overlap, and therefore have high discriminative power. For other vowels, though, the transitions 
from different places of articulation are quite similar and overlap a great deal. 

In this talk I present some further evidence that corroborates Kewely-Port's conclusions. 
Vowel formant transitions for 3 vowels /i/, /a/, and /u/ each following labial and alveolar stops were 
pulled out of a 600 speaker/6000 sentence database of American English speech (TIMIT), and 
acoustically analyzed. Automatic formant tracking was performed on all the tokens and they were then 

38 



divided into categories by vowel and place of articulation. For each token the onset frequency of the 
second formant was automatically picked, and three points from the beginning to the middle of the 
vowel were manually picked to indicate the transition slope. Statistical analysis of these data support 
the view that formant transitions are unlikely to have a high discriminative power. 

Miner, Edward 

Graduate Student, UIUC 
Imploding Communicative Competence' and the Speech Comminity: Data from Kampala, Uganda 

27 February 1997 

This paper will explore the notion of 'discursive practice' as it has emerged from a 
convergence of approaches within practice theories and critical discourse analysis. Both traditions 
have worked toward the unpacking and critique of the constructs 'communicative competence' and 
'speech community' as they are currently understood in mainstream sociolinguistic research. While 
communicative competence is generally understood as knowledge of the social contexts of language 
variation, at issue is the tendency of researchers to construe such knowledge as homogeneously and 
evenly distributed through 'speech communities.' This internal homogenization of the speech 
community for empirical purposes has the (unintended?) effect of leveling its sociohistorical 
structuration and specificity. Although as a heuristic, the investigation of 'communicative 
competence' in relation to 'speech community' lends itself to the study of the systematic relations of 
linguistic form to linguistic function, these concepts are fundamentally normative and so foreclose on 
important opportunities to develop theory about how life trajectories and social change are 
interconnected within linguistic activity. 

While normative models sanitize language, use of its messy historicity, the key move of both 
practice-based approaches and critical discourse analysis is to place social history and critique at the 
center of linguistic inquiry. Practice theories (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977; Bourdieu 1991; Collins 
1993) rethink communicative competence as emergent, historically-situated social knowledge: 
emergent, because sociohistorical contexts are at one time partially-constraining and open-ended. 
Collins (1993) notes that Bourdieu describes the sociohistorical conditioning of practice in terms of the 
interrelated "concepts of capital (accumulable social-symbolic resources), field (the arenas of social life 
and struggle), and habitus ("embodied social structures" that serve as organizing principles)". The 
pursuit of a particular form of capital organizes its field, and the internalization (acquisition) of these 
principles by social actors is the formation of habitus. Critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 1992) 
has shown that ideology operates in discursive practice (social practice involving language) through 
interpretive principles (habitus) that impose a certain sense of 'coherence' on texts. For sociohistorical 
reasons, however, not all social actors within the same 'speech community' may experience the same 
coherencies in texts, which means that these individuals/groups have acquired or otherwise 
'developed' differentiated interpretive schemas. Fairclough (1992) argues: "Such moments of crisis 
can make visible aspects of practices which might normally be naturalized, and therefore difficult to 
notice; but they also show change in process, the actual ways in which people deal with the 
problematization of practices". These issues will be explored using data from Kampala, Uganda. 

Hock, Hans Henrich 

Professor, Department of Linguistics 

Bring the Paper, COMMA, Boy Or: The Joys of Prosody 

6 March 1997 

At least since Chomsky & Halle (1968), linguists have been aware that the relationship 
between syntax and phonology may be indirect. Phonological phenomena such as sandhi and phrasal 
accent have been argued to require an intermediate component which assigns prosodic structure to the 
output of the syntax. Important milestones toward understanding that prosodic component include 
Selkirk (1983, 1984) and Nespor & Vogel (1986); for an excellent summary see Dresher 1994. 

39 



Several recent publications, as well as my own work in progress, argue that a number of 
phenomena commonly considered syntactic are in fact conditioned by prosody. These include 
Aissen's (1992) account for the placement of the Tzotzil clitic un, Dresher's (1994) explanation of 
Tiberian Hebrew accentuation, Radanovic-Kocic's prosodic account of Serbo-Croatian P2 clitic 
placement (1988, 1996), and my arguments that P2 clitic placement in general must be accounted for 
prosodically and that clitics ontologically are prosodically defined and owe their existence to the 
interaction of pragmatics and prosody. 

In this paper I present a number of cases where, I believe, a prosodic account permits better 
generalizations than a purely syntactic one. I begin with a brief survey of work that has already been 
published. This includes Hock 1991, showing that the Old English syntactic rebracketing of 
correlative pronouns (of the main clause) as relative pronouns (in the relative clause) is chronologically 
preceded by prosodic rebracketing; and Hock 1996, with crosslinguistic arguments for an entirely 
prosodic account of P2 clitics. 

The main part of my paper concerns Vedic Sanskrit verb accent. The well-known general rule 
is as follows: Dependent-clause (DC) finite verbs are accented; main-clause (DC) finite verbs are 
unaccented, unless initial in their clause. (The situation is more complex in prefixed verbs.) 

The origin of Vedic verb accent and its relation to the "recessive" accent of Ancient Greek finite 
verbs have received a variety of explanations. Most postulate explanations that can be called 
"prosodic" in a broad sense, but they draw their support from German verb accentuation in 
intonational phrases, which does not provide a plausible basis for explaining the Vedic situation. 

I argue for an explanation in terms of the crosslinguistic tendency for sentence-final position to 
be characterized by falling intonation (see most recently Herman 1995). Becker (1977) shows that the 
incompatibility of lexical high tone and sentence-final falling intonation tends to cause high tones on 
utterance-final syllables to "migrate leftward," and that this migration may be extended to other 
contexts, leading to "recessive" word accent. Accent retraction can also take place in larger prosodic 
domains; for instance, Grimes 1959 shows that sentence-final constituents in Huichol lose their 
underlying tones and instead exhibit the tonal properties of sentence intonation. 

I show that Modern Farsi exhibits an even more remarkble interaction between intonation and 
clause-final verb accentuation. Significantly, in structures with DC before MC, clause-final verbs are 
accented in the DC, but MCs exhibit recessive accent, such that the verb tends to lose its accent 
altogether if another accented element precedes within the VP. I show in detail that if a similar 
distribution obtained in late or dialectal Proto-Indo-European, it is possible to explain both the nature 
of Vedic verb accent and the recessive accent of Ancient Greek by way of reinterpretations and 
extensions, that is, as instances of "grammaticalization". 

Time permitting I examine the consequences of prosodic accounts of the type outlined above 
for theories about the "architecture" of the grammar. To mention only two of these: If clitics owe 
their origin to an interaction between pragmatics and prosody, without mediation by the syntax, this 
challenges the common view that the pragmatic/semantic and phonological components cannot "talk" 
to each other directly (on this matter see also Woodbury 1987). If prosody accounts for clitic 
placement (even in a rather limited way, under Halpern's more restrictive view), this challenges the 
common view that word order can only be accounted for in the syntax. 



40 



Morgan, Jerry L. 

Professor and Head, Department of Linguistics 
GASPAR: A Research Project in Applied Computational Linguistics 

13 March 1997 

This talk reports work in progress on a five-year research project whose goal is to lay a 
foundation for human-computer interfaces that combine speech and gesture in a natural way. The first 
part of the talk will describe the Federated Laboratory research consortium under whose auspices the 
research is being conducted. The second section will describe the goals of the speech-gesture project 
and outline our progress to date, focusing on the initial stage of linguistic engineering (grammar 
development, speech recognizer construction) and on current experimental work on the timing 
relations between speech and gesture. 

Rhee, Seok-Chae 

Linguistics Graduate Student, UIUC 
Release vs. Non-Release in Phonology: Comparison Between Hindi and Korean 

20 March 1997 

In this paper I argue that some of the differences in the consonantal phonology of Hindi and 
Korean are direct consequences of a constraint governing the release of stops. The relevant 
differences are summarized below: 

Hindi (Kostic. Mitter & Rastogi 1975) Korean (K-H. Kim 1987) 

a) No Laryngeal Neutralization a') Laryngeal Neutralization 
(t, t h , d, d h are possible in the coda) (only voiceless unaspirated 
sa:t 'seven', so:/ 1 'with', su:d 'interest' stops are possible in the coda) 

sa:ct 'desire' ap h 'front' -» ap,pak' 'outside' -» pak 

b) No Place Assimilation in CC b') Place Assimilation in CC 

(t,k -* t.k, *k.k) gatka 'a type of club' (t.k -* k.k) kutkan 'steady -* kukkan 

c) No Nasal Assimilation in CN c') Nasal Assimilation in CN 

(p.n -* p.n, *m.n) ma:pni 'a scale' (p.m -* m.m) ip-man 'mouth only' -* imman 

A question that immediately arises is why Hindi and Korean consistently differ with regard to 
laryngeal neutralization, place assimilation and nasal assimilation. A satisfactory account of the 
differences between the two languages hinges on the release or non-release of final stops. 

Assuming that release of a stop plays an important role in phonology (Steriade 1992, 1993, 
1994, Padgett 1995), my analysis builds on the observation that a coda stop is released in Hindi 
whereas it is strictly unreleased in Korean. Under the framework of Optimality Theory (Prince & 
Smolensky 1993, McCarthy & Prince 1995), the non-release of a coda stop in Korean is accounted 
for by ranking CODACOND -which requires that a coda end with A ~ as inviolable, outranking 
iDENT(Apr) (Apr: Aperture mode). In contrast, release of a final stop in Hindi is captured by a 
ranking whereby iDENT(Apr) dominates CODACOND. Since CODACOND is never violated in Korean, 
occurrences of A^ are disallowed in the coda position. Therefore, [sg] and [eg] aligned with A^ 
cannot survive in the coda. This is why laryngeal neutralization occurs in Korean. However, in 
Hindi, dominance of iDENT(Apr) over CODACOND makes it possible for A^ to occur in the coda 
position, allowing [sg] to appear in the coda. Even though [voice] in Hindi is aligned with closure 
(i.e., A ), I claim that it is directly licensed by release. Regarding the differences in place and nasal 
assimilation, I show that they are basically, again, due to the different rankings governing release. 
The idea is that stop release blocks assimilation. I demonstrate how the idea is formally expressed in 
OT phonology. 

41 



An implication of this study is that release directly affects the sound patterns previously 
claimed to be prosody-sensitive such as laryngeal neutralization and directionality of place 
assimilation. Release plays a role in the account of why a stop in release position (typically syllable 
onset) is more resistant to phonological alternations. This study incorporates release into the 
phonology; it claims that prosody-sensitive faithfulness (Lombardi 1995a, b, Beckman 1997) ~ which 
is only an indirect way of capturing these facts ~ can be replaced by release-sensitive faithfulness ~ 
which provides a phonetically grounded account of why released stops are faithful to their input 
features. 

Lowenberg, Peter 

Visiting Professor, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 
Linguistic Competence, Language Pragmatics, and Testing World Englishes 

3 April 1997 

According to the British Council, of the more than 700 million people around the world who 
currently use English on a daily basis, by far the majority are multilingual, non-native speakers of 
English who use English primarily with other multilingual, non-native speakers of English. 
However, in contemporary approaches to English language teaching and testing, an implicit (and 
frequently explicit) assumption continues to be that the norms for Standard English which are 
followed around the world are limited to those which are accepted and used by educated native 
speakers of English. 

This paper challenges that assumption on the basis of data from domains of Standard English 
in the "non-native" varieties of English, which have developed in many countries formerly colonized 
by Britain or the United States, including Nigeria, Kenya, India, Malaysia, Singapore, and the 
Philippines. In these countries, English is used daily as a second language in a broad range of official 
and professional domains of Standard English, including government, the legal system, business, the 
mass media, and as a medium of instruction in education. 

Analysis of these data from non-native varieties reveals systematic divergences in these 
varieties from features in the predominantly monolingual "native-speaker" varieties of English, such as 
British, American, and Australian English. These divergences occur at all linguistic levels. At the 
levels of morphology and syntax, many features in non-native varieties differ from the native-speaker 
varieties in the same ways that divergences occur across the native-speaker varieties (e.g., count/non- 
count distinctions in nouns, prepositional collocations, and phrasal verbs). At the levels of 
pragmatics, style, and discourse, many strategies and conventions in non-native varieties are 
transferred from their multilingual users' other languages. Attitudinal research and frequency of use 
indicate that many of these features are so widespread and stable that they can be considered to be de- 
facto norms for Standard English usage in one or more non-native varieties. 

In light of this evidence, norms of Standard English can be seen to vary between native- 
speaker and non-native norms, depending primarily on the usage of educated English speakers in each 
speech community where English is used for official and professional purposes. 

A major implication of this research for language testing is illustrated by examining selected 
items from high stakes tests which claim to assess multilinguals' proficiency in Standard English as a 
world language, such as those developed by the Educational Testing Service. The correct answers to 
these test items, though in accord with norms of the native-speaker varieties, violate norms for 
Standard English in one or more non-native varieties which have been described to date. These items 
are thus invalid as measures of proficiency in English as a world language, and the overall validity of 
the tests in which they appear must therefore be questioned. 



42 



Pagliuca, William 

Visiting Scholar, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 
Expression-Specific Phonetic Detail in Synchrony and Diachrony 

17 April 1997 

Close attention to the phonetic form of lexical material within a given dialect can sometimes 
reveal, in addition to the expected variation, phonetic detail of different sorts, some of the subtleties of 
which exceed the representational limits of our transcriptional tools. If the distribution of variants and 
detail were either completely predictable from what we take to be phonological and phonetic context or 
entirely random, then it would be of little or no interest to us. But there are indications that at least 
some kinds of detail, both finely- and not-so-finely-graded, as well as susceptibility to alteration by 
phonetic processes, are neither uniformly nor randomly distributed over all the lexical items satisfying 
a given structural description. Moreover, the phonetic differences involved seem to be controllable by 
individuals and preserved in the generational transmission of geographical and social dialects. That 
is, as is true of items in the vanguard of changes-in-progress, they are not subject to being leveled out 
or regularized away. 

Among the most familiar sorts of stretches of form displaying behaviors of this type are 
greetings and other formulaic expressions and grammaticalized or grammaticalizing material, in which 
both phonetic and semantic differentiation from the original forms and meanings are obvious. The 
underlying reason for the differentiation may be characterized as a continuous and gradual evolution of 
form in individual heavily-used stretches of linguistic material. Greetings and like expressions may 
be viewed as located at one extreme of a continuum of use, at the other end of which reside regular but 
infrequently recruited or otherwise non-core lexical items. One relevant question, then, is: For how 
much more of a language's stock of lexical material can we expect to find evidence for use-based 
differentials and resulting specificity of form? If it turns out, for instance, that speakers have control 
of systematic differences at the level of individual expressions where none are predicted (as when 
segmental and other environmental context is identical or nearly so) then we might want to re-evaluate 
the assumption that phonological and phonetic form are in principle fully describable in terms of 
standardized or categorical units plus sets of mapping statements specifying surface phonetic form. 

Records of systematic observation, such as the close transcriptions typical of certain traditions 
of dialect description (e.g. The Survey of English Dialects), provide us with useful information 
relevant to issues such as these, as do the results of some instrumental phonetic research. I will try to 
show some of the respects in which descriptive and theoretical access to relatively elementary and 
accessible sorts of detail can be crucial in understanding certain types of diachronic events and, 
moreover, of some value in guiding the choices of questions to ask in subsequent instrumental 
research. I will also argue that speakers' control of specificity and detail suggests that the link 
between the perceptual and motor systems is far more subtle and efficient than is generally appreciated 
and that certain species of arguments related to Ohala's well-known position that misperception drives 
sound change seem not to be in accord with available evidence. 

Kutryb, Carol 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 

Differences between Full and Reduced Relative Clauses 

24 April 1997 

Reduced relative clauses are frequently used in psycholinguistic studies of ambiguity 
resolution because of their temporary structural ambiguity. However, such studies use full relative 
clauses as their unambiguous control condition and make two implicit assumption: First, because they 
are ambiguous, reduced relative clauses are assumed to be more difficult to process than full relative 



43 



clauses. Second, full and reduced relative clauses are assumed to be identical in every way except for 
the presence or absence of ambiguity, so that any differences between them are attributed solely to the 
difficulty in resolving the ambiguity in reduced clauses. 

In this talk, I will present evidence from several studies casting doubt on both of these 
assumptions. First, a study of naturally occurring full and reduced relative clauses will show that 
reduced clauses, which are assumed to be more difficult, are actually much more common than full 
clauses. Second, a series of experiments using memory as a measure of pragmatic prominence will 
show that there are memory/prominence differences between full and reduced relative clauses, 
independent of the structural ambiguity in reduced clauses. 

You, Yu-Ling 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics, UIUC 
Defining Topic Continuity for Recovery Chinese Zero Anaphora 

1 May 1997 

There is abundant use of zero anaphora in Chinese discourse, both written and spoken. The 
use of zero anaphora, then, gives rise to the question: "How language users understand the referent?" 

Most of the previous literature on Chinese zero anaphora focuses on the choice among zero 
anaphora, pronouns, and full noun phrases (Chen 1984, 1986, Givon 1983, Li and Thompson 1979, 
1981, and Pu 1989). The distance and the potential interference(s) between a zero anaphora and its 
referent are examined, and the conclusions reached by earlier researchers can be summarized as 
follows: the more predictable the referent is, the more possible for an entity to be expressed by zero 
anaphora. Despite the fact that pragmatic information is necessary in interpreting zero anaphora, 
Cheng (1988, 1990) and Lee (1990) attempt to recover the referent of zero anaphora by using other 
information available in texts. The current study is based on Cheng's Topic Continuity and recovery 
rules, but is distinct from Cheng's and Lee's in that, first, the use of full noun phrases under certain 
conditions is adopted to indicate the scope of Topic Continuity in addition to the definition, i.e., Topic 
Continuity is a sequence of clauses which share the same discourse topic, which is given by Cheng 
and Lee. Second, the recovery principles set up in the current study aim to interpret the zero anaphora 
which are present anywhere in a clause instead of focusing only on subject zero entity as does Lee. 
Third, the recovery principles proposed here are derived from and tested against about 1,000 Topic 
Continuities taken from Hongloumeng (Dream of the Red Mansions) in contrast with the limited 
number of data also taken from Hongloumeng examined by Lee. 

This talk will first discuss the reason why the occurrence of full noun phrases can be used to 
indicate the change of topic, i.e., the scope of Topic Continuity. After examining 300 of the 1,000 
Topic Continuities, tentative recovery principles are established, which can predict the referent of zero 
anaphora in combination with Keenan's Accessibility Hierarchy, backward/forward linking and scope 
of connectives, the notion of saliency and semantic properties of predicates. This talk will then 
explain and present examples to show how Accessibility Hierarchy and the notion of saliency are 
applied in recovery process, and the importance of linking function and scope of connectives and 
semantic cues provided by predicates which are available in texts in recovering the intended referent of 
zero anaphora. 



44 



Mack, Molly 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language, UIUC 

Crossing Paths in Perceptual Space: Vowel Discrimination and Identification Among English 

Monolinguals and Early Korean-English Bilinguals 

8 May 1997 

The present study was undertaken to determine whether or not there are significant age-related 
effects in the processing of vowel continua among early Korean-English bilinguals. Computer- 
synthesized /i-I/ and /u-U/ vowel continua were presented in tests of discrimination and identification 
to three adult subject groups—English monolinguals, Korean-English bilinguals whose age of 
exposure to English began between birth and three years of age, and Korean-English bilinguals whose 
age of exposure to English began between four and seven years of age. Based upon previous research 
(Mack, 1989, 1990; Mack et al., 1995) it was hypothesized that even very early exposure to English 
would result in differences among these groups in their responses to the vowel stimuli due, at least in 
part, to the fact that English— but not Korean— has phonemic /i-I/ and /u-U/ contrasts. Results revealed 
some systematic differences in the subjects' responses, and these findings are interpreted in view of 
Flege's Speech Learning Model (1995). In addition, possible implications for the existence of a 
critical (or sensitive) period for the acquisition of L2 contrasts are discussed. Finally, the organization 
of the phonological system in "the bilingual brain" is considered. 

Linguistics Club 

The Linguistics Club serves as a forum to which established scholars are invited. Since the 
last issue of the Newsletter, the following papers have been presented. (Inquiries about and requests 
for available copies should be directed to the authors.) 

Levin, Beth 

Northwestern University 
Two Ways to a Goal: On the Expression of Motion in English 

10 April 1997 

English has two ways of expressing motion events involving both a manner and a goal of 
motion. As frequently noted in discussions of lexical aspect and unaccusativity, a manner of motion 
verb can take a goal phrase directly (Tracy limped up to the ticket booth). Alternatively, the goal 
phrase can be introduced via a construction that has received substantial attention recently, the way 
construction (Tracy limped her way up to the ticket booth). An examination of the syntax of these two 
constructions shows that in one the verb has the unaccusative classification typical of telic verbs, while 
in the other it has the unergative classification typical of atelic verbs (including verbs of manner of 
motion when they don't take directional phrases). Drawing on these observations, it will be argued 
that these two expressions of motion events with goals reflect different conceptualizations of such 
events. Finally, the analysis will be used to explain a number of observations in the literature 
concerning the distribution and interpretation of the {\it way} construction with verbs of motion. 

Goldberg, Adele 

University of California, San Diego 

On the Need to Recognize Constructions, 

31 May 1996 

Basic sentence patterns of a language are generally taken to be determined by semantic or 
syntactic information specified by the main verb in the sentence. Thus, the sentence patterns given in 
(1) and (2) appear to be determined by the specifications of give and put respectively: 



45 



1. Chris GAVE Pat a ball. 

2. Pat PUT the ball on the table. 

In this talk I will argue that while (1) and (2) represent perhaps the prototypical case, sentence 
patterns of a language are not reliably determined by independent specifications of the main verb. For 
example, it is implausible to claim that sneeze has a three argument sense in (3): 

3. Pat SNEEZED the foam off the cappuccino. 

The following attested examples similarly involve sentential patterns that do not seem to be 
determined by independent specification of the main verb: 

4. "My father FROWNED away the compliment." 

5. "We LAUGHED our conversation to an end." 

6. "Pauline SMILED her thanks." 

7. "The Miami quarterback was BOO-ED to the bench." 

It is argued, on the basis of linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence, that lexically unfilled 
phrasal constructions exist and contribute significantly to the overall semantic interpretation. Specific 
ways that verbs may be related to constructions, and a way to capture linking generalizations across 
constructions are also discussed. 

It is suggested that the recognition of phrasal constructions corresponding to basic sentence 
patterns leads one toward a view of grammar in which the construction (or sign): any non-predictable 
form-meaning pairing, plays a central role. 

Geis, Mike 

Professor Emeritus, Department of Linguistics, The Ohio State University 
Conversational Implicature in a Plan-Based Theory of Pragmatics 

8 November 1996 

There exists no pragmatic theory. Rather, we have separate theories of such phenomena as 
conversational implicature, speech acts, presuppositions, deixis, etc. In this paper, I advance the 
notion that there can be a unified theory of pragmatics capable of accounting for each of the above 
phenomena. 

At the heart of Grice's theory of conversational implicature is his Cooperative Principle: make 
your conversational contribution such that it furthers the purpose of the talk exchange. This principle 
sets out the notion of a purpose as central to the account of implicature. However, instead of 
providing a systematic theory of how the utterances of conversations are related to the purposes of 
conversations, Grice gave us maxims for cooperative behavior, and, as a result, most of the focus of 
the theory of implicature has been on the maxims, not on how what we say is specifically related to 
our goals. 

In this paper, I propose a plan-based theory of pragmatics that has its origins in artificial 
intelligence research into natural language processing. Suppose that I am in a restaurant eating with 
friends and come to desire to go home. In such a circumstance, I could choose from a number of 
DOMAIN PLANS that would have as their goal my being at my home. I could walk home. I might 
drive myself home. I might employ a taxi. Or, I might bum a ride from one of my dining partners. 
Obviously, certain conditions would have to be satisfied before I could reasonably employ any one of 
these plans. Thus, I could drive myself home only if I have a car or am willing to steal one. 
Associated with some plans, no talk would be required. Thus, my walking home or driving myself 
home would not require engaging with anyone in talk. However, if I am to employ a taxi to get home 

46 



or get one of my dining partners to drive me home, I must engage in talk with someone — a dispatcher 
and taxi driver in the one case and a dining partner in the other. In these cases I must employ some 
CONVERSATIONAL PLAN that has as its goal the obtaining of a commitment from someone to 
drive me home. And, as in the case of domain plans, any given conversational plan will be subject to 
certain conditions if its goals is to be achieved. 

Associated with each conversational plan (see my "Speech Acts and Conversational 
Interaction," CUP, 1995), is an initial state, the state from which the plan is launched, a set of 
intended transactional (think of Searle's Essential Condition here) and interactional (think of Brown 
and Levinson's theory of face work here) effects, a set of conditions that must be satisfied before 
these effects can obtain, and a domain that consists of a set of predicates spelling out (very roughly) 
who is to do what, when, where, and how. 

In this paper, I provide a sketch of how utterances can be mapped into the elements of 
conversational plans and of how certain sorts of implicatures arise therefrom. My main claim is that 
substantial implicature-drawing does not involve "calculation" in Grice's sense of the term, but are 
drawn quite automatically. Thus, if a friend comes up to you at 5:00 p.m. some work day and says, 
"Do you have your car?"), you will (given certain contextual presuppositions) infer that this friend 
desires a ride home (the initial state of a ride request) for this utterance instantiates a precondition 
specific to the ability condition of ride requests (among several other types of conversational plan) and 
that he or she means to be asking you whether you are able to provide this ride. One of the payoffs to 
adopting a plan-based theory of pragmatics of this sort is that it enables one to account correctly for the 
infamous case of "invited inference" put forth by Arnold Zwicky and me involving the sentence, "I'll 
give you $5 if you mow the lawn." 

Raskin, Victor 

Professor, Interdepartmental Program in Linguistics, Purdue University 

Humor and Computation! 
11 November 1996 

This paper belongs in the series of publications exploring the possibilities of humor 
computation in general and of computer implementations of the general theory of verbal humor, the 
revised and extended script-based semantic theory of humor, in particular. After answering (sort of) 
the question why humor should be computed in the first place, the (full) paper focuses on three major 
issues. First, a full-fledged theory of humor is postulated and explored as the necessary foundation 
for defining and underlying the overall architecture as well as the static and dynamic resources of any 
computational system for humor analysis and/or generation. Second, the goals of humor computation 
and its implementation, ranging from the "bag of tricks" approach to full understanding, are 
discussed. Third, the ontological semantic approach to machine translation is examined from the point 
of view of the suitability and adaptability of its lexical resources for computing humor. The three 
issues may appear intimately connected to each other only in the author's twisted mind. 

The full paper can be accessed as a PostScript file (twentel-ascii.ps or twentel-bin.ps-either 
should print out nicely on any PostScript printer) or a binhexed Macintosh FrameMaker 5.1 file 
(twentel.hqx) on nlplab@rvl3.ecn.purdue.edu, password = natural. The actual presentation may not 
cover the entire contents of the paper and may, in fact, drift away from it significantly. The full paper 
is intended as an optional background and is not essential for understanding the talk. On the other 
hand, feel free to ask the speaker (vraskin@purdue.edu) for more background material online. 



47 



Pollard, Carl 

Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics, The Ohio State University 

Argument Structure and Case in French Causatives 

25 April 1997 

In this talk I present ongoing work with Mike Calcagno on the structure of FAIRE-causatives 
in French. Our account shares with earlier HPSG accounts (such as those of Bratt 1990, and of 
Abeille, Godard, and Miller 1995) a reliance on the technique of ARGUMENT ATTRACTION 
introduced by Hinrichs and Nakazawa in their study of German. However, unlike these earlier 
accounts, our analysis accounts for a number of puzzling differences between "structural" causatives 
(where the causee surfaces as either an accusative or a dative) and those constructions where the 
causee shows up as an optional PAR-phrase. 

Puzzle One. FAIRE-PAR causatives (but not structural FAIRE-causatives, resemble passives 
in certain respects: 

Safamille a casse la croute. 

*La croute a ete casse par sa famille. 

*I1 a fait casser la croute par sa famille. 

Jean levera la main. 

*La main sera levee par Jean. 

*Elle fera lever la main par Jean. 

Jean quittera ma maison demain. 

*Ma maison sera quittee par Jean demain. 

*Je ferai quitter ma maison par Jean demain. 



Puzzle Two. 
reflexivization: 



FAIRE-PAR causatives and structural FAIRE-causatives differ with respect to 



*Jean s'est fait pincer a Marie. 

Jean s'est fait pincer (par Marie), [reflexive patient] 

Jean s'est fair rire. [reflexive causee] 

Jean a fait se pincer Marie, [reflexive patient] 

Jean l'a fait se pincer. [reflexive patient] 

* Jean lui a fait se pincer. } 

Puzzle Three: Realization of causee is obligatory if the "downstairs" verb is unaccusative: 

Ce medicament fait dormir. 

II faut laisser parler. 

*Ca fait arriver en retard. 

Dieu fera apparaitre *(la Sainte Vierge). 

The proposed account draws on an independently motivated analysis of (the syntactic 
correlates of) unaccusativity originally proposed by Pollard (1994) for German, and on a new analysis 
of case which distinguishes between abstract case (ACASE) and realized case (RCASE). 



48 



Co-Sponsored Events 

Each year the Department of Linguistics cooperates with other departments to bring noted 
speakers to the Campus. This year the Department co-sponsored the following Speakers: 

African Studies Conference 

2nd Annual Midwest Graduate Student Conference in African Studies 
28 February - 2 March 1996 

Coleman, John 

Director of Phonetic Lab at Oxford University 
1-3 July 1996 

Soyinka, Wole 

Nobel Laureate for Literature, 1986 

Playwright and Human Rights Activist, Nigeria 

Human Rights: First Casualty of Revisionism, MillerComm 

3 April 1997 

SLATE (various lectures) 

Heath, Shirley 

Professor of English and Linguistics at Stanford University 

MillerComm 
21 April 1997 

Yehoshua, A.B. 

Israeli novelist 
23 April 1997 

LINGUISTIC STUDENT ORGANIZATION (LSO) 

The Linguistics Student Organization (LSO) consists of all students in the Department of 
Linguistics and is represented and coordinated by the Student Advisory Panel. Its major activities are 
organizing the Linguistics Club, advocating for student interests, developing a sense of community 
within the department, and funding "Colorless Green Newsflashes." 

During the 1993-94 academic year LSO brought the speakers whose abstracts are printed 
under the Linguistics Club. LSO's bake sales, sales of Department of Linguistics T-shirts and 
sweatshirts, support from SORE, and the co-sponsorship of several departments, have made the 
Linguistics Club a continued success. 

DEPARTMENTAL PUBLICATIONS 

Linguistics Weekly (News and Notes from the Department) is distributed each Friday, 
keeping faculty and students of the department informed of upcoming meetings, seminars, lectures, 
important deadlines, Ph.D. defenses, and announcements of interest and/or concern to the 
department. Professor Jerry L. Morgan, Head, is the editor, assisted by Tassilo Homolatsch. 



49 



Graduate Study is a guide to graduate courses, programs, and degree requirements in the 
Department of Linguistics at UIUC. It is distributed to all applicants for admission to graduate study 
in the Department. 

Undergraduate Study currently being developed, is a guide to undergraduate courses, 
programs, and degree requirements of the Department of Linguistics at UIUC. It will be distributed to 
students interested in becoming undergraduate majors in the Department. 

The Studies in the Linguistic Sciences is a journal intended as a forum for the pre- 
sentation of the latest research by faculty and students of the Department. Papers by scholars not 
associated with the University of Illinois are also considered for publication. The journal devotes one 
issue each year to specialized topics. The general editor is Elmer H. Antonsen, and the review editor 
is James Yoon. (See the last page of this Newsletter for a listing of our available issues and an order 
blank to be copied at your convenience. 



50 



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14.2 Language in African Culture and Society 

15.1 Papers in General Linguistics 

15.2 Linguistic Studies in Memory of Theodore M. Lighter 

16.1 Papers in General Linguistics 

16.2 Illinois Studies in Korean Linguistics 

17.1 Papers from the 1986 Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable 

17.2 Papers in General Linguistics 

18.1 Papers in General Linguistic 

18.2 Papers in General Linguistics 

19.1 Papers in General Linguistics 

19.2 The Contributions of African Linguistics to Linguistic Theory, Vol. 1 
_20.1 The Contributions of African Linguistics tO Linguistic Theory, Vol. 2 

20.2 Linguistics for the Nineties, Papers from a Lecture Series 

in Celebration of the Department's 25th Anniversary 

20.3 Meeting Handbook: 13th South Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable 

25-27 May, 1991, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

21.1 Papers in General Linguistics 

21.2 Illinois Studies in Korean Linguistics, II 

22. 1 Papers in General Linguistics 

22.2 Fall 1992 Twenty-Five Years of Linguistic Research at the University of 

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Post-Graduate Research by Doctoral and Master': 
Degree Students in the Department of Linguistics 

23.1 Spring 1993 Papers in General Linguistics 

23.2 Fall 1993 Papers in General Linguistics [SOLD OUT] 

24.1/2 1994 (double issue) Proceedings of the 4th Annual Meeting of the Formal 
Linguistic Society of Mid- America 

25.1 Spring 1995 Papers in General Linguistics 

25.2 Fall 1995 Language and Gender 

26.1 Spring 1996 Papers in General Linguistics [approximately late Fall 97] 



Sciences: 



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51 



Cop 







JLUiFAKTMENT OF LINGUISTICS 



University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 



Newsletter 




June 1997 - August 1998 



Department of Linguistics 



University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 



Newsletter 



June 1997 - August 1998 



Editor 
Jerry L. Morgan 



Assistant Editor 
Cathy Drake 



With the aid of 
Beth Creek 



Nondiscrimination Statement 

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 

Official Notice 

The commitment of the University of Illinois to the most fundamental principles 
of academic freedom, equality of opportunity, and human dignity requires that decisions 
involving students and employees be based on individual merit and be free from 
invidious discrimination in all its forms. 

It is the policy of the University of Illinois not to engage in discrimination or 
harassment against any person because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, 
ancestry, age, marital status, disability, sexual orientation, unfavorable discharge from the 
military, or status as a disabled veteran or a veteran of the Vietnam era and to comply 
with all federal and state nondiscrimination, equal opportunity and affirmative action 
laws, orders, and regulations. This University's nondiscrimination policy applies to 
admissions, employment, access to and treatment in the University's programs and 
activities. Complaints of invidious discrimination prohibited by University policy are to 
be resolved within existing University procedures. 

For additional information or assistance on the equal opportunity, affirmative 
action, and harassment policies of the University or information on Title IX, ADA or 
504, please contact: For the Urbana-Champaign campus, Larine Y. Cowan, Assistant 
Chancellor and Director, Office of Affirmative Action, 100A Swanlund, MC-304, 601 
East John Street, Champaign, IL 61820. Telephone: (217)333-0885. 



CONTENTS 

Notes from the Department Head 1 

Department of Linguistics Personnel, 1997-98 2 

Faculty 2 

Emeritus Faculty 3 

Leaves of Absence 4 

Appointments Outside the Department 4 

Cooperating Faculty 4 

Lecturers 6 

Visiting Faculty 6 

Teaching Associates 6 

Teaching Assistants 7 

Graduate Assistants 7 

Secretarial Staff 7 

Honors and Recognitions 7 

Incomplete List of Teachers Ranked as Excellent by their Students 7 

Fellowship Recipients 8 

Departmental Awards 8 

Silver Jubilee Award for Outstanding Teaching Assistant in Linguistics 8 
Henry R. Kahane Award for Outstanding Teaching Assistant in 

Non-Western Languages 8 

Outstanding Undergraduate Student 8 

Departmental Distinction 8 

Graduate Students 8 

Undergraduate Majors 9 

Degrees Awarded 9 

B.A. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 9 

MA. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 9 

Ph.D. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 9 

Ph.D. Dissertation Abstracts 10 

Student Progress 17 

Students Who Passed the Qualifying Examination 17 

Students Admitted to the Ph.D. Program 17 

Ph.D. Preliminary Examinations Passed 17 

Ph.D. Dissertations Defended 18 

Ph.D. Dissertations in Progress 18 

Research and Service 20 

New Publications 20 

Papers Read 24 

Individual Recognition and Projects 28 

Alumni News 31 

Public Events 33 

Linguistics Seminar 33 

Linguistics Club 49 

Co-Sponsored Events 52 

Linguistic Student Organization 52 

Departmental Publications 52 

Linguistics Weekly 52 

Graduate Study 53 

Undergraduate Study 53 

Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 53 

Order Form - Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 54 



Notes from the Department Head 

This will be a busy and stimulating year for our Department. We say "well done" to 
Yamuna Kachru, who has just retired, but will still be an active member of the linguistics 
community here, as Professor Emeritus. A celebration in her honor will be held in conjunction 
with the World English conference (see below). We will be looking for a South Asian socio- 
linguist to replace some of the many areas of Yamuna's expertise. 

We also congratulate Jennifer Cole and Adele Goldberg on their well-deserved promotions 
to Associate Professor with tenure. Both are among the most active contributors to what goes on 
here, and we're glad to see 
their hard work rewarded. 

Well done also to Beth Creek, our administrative secretary, who is to be commended for 
her twenty years' outstanding service to the university. 

We welcome C. C. Cheng back, from several years as Director of the Language Learning 
Laboratory, followed by a sabbatical in Hong Kong. At the same time, we will be seeing Hans 
Henrich Hock a little less often, since he has accepted the Dean's invitation be Director of the 
Center for South Asian Studies. 

Some major events will be held here this year. Among them, a workshop on the state of 
linguistics and its future, to be held here at the end of October; and the 5 lh International 
Conference on World Englishes, (World Englishes and African Identities), 5-7 November 1998. 
More information on these (and other) events can be found on our web page, 
http://www.cogsci.uiuc.edu/linguistics/. 

But the biggest event, for which we will be doing a lot of preparatory work this year, is the 
1999 Linguistic Institute, to be held here in early summer of '99. Adele Goldberg is the Director, 
having replaced Hans Hock in the job, due to the demands of his new position with the Center 
for South Asian. Hans stays on as Co-Director, with Peter Lasersohn and Ivan Sag as Associate 
Directors. They are doing an excellent job organizing the Institute. The list of eminent linguists 
who have agreed to come and teach is spectacular. Full details are accessible from our web page. 

Finally, a note to alumni of our department: this year we will working on finding ways that 
alumni can be a resource to our department, and ways in which we can provide continued service 
to our graduates after they leave Illinois. We will be contacting you for your suggestions and 
opinions. 



Jerry L. Morgan 
Professor and Head 



Department of Linguistics Personnel, 1997-1998 

Faculty 

Benmamoun, Elabbas 

Assistant Professor of Linguistics, (syntax, morphology, interfaces, and Arabic/Semitic 
languages). 

Bokamba, Eyamba G. 

Professor of Linguistics, (African linguistics, Bantu syntax, sociolinguistics: 
multilingualism, language variation, code switching, and language planning and policy). 

Cheng, Chin-Chuan 

LAS Jubilee Professor of Linguistics, Chinese, and English as an International Language 
(computational linguistics, quantifying dialect affinity, and Chinese discourse analysis). 

Cole, Jennifer 

Associate Professor of Linguistics, Beckman Institute, (phonology and computational 
linguistics). 

Goldberg, Adele 

Associate Professor of Linguistics, Beckman Institute, (syntax/semantics, construction 
grammar, lexical semantics, categorization, the acquisition of constructions, and natural language 
processing). 

Green, Georgia M. 

Professor of Linguistics, Beckman Institute, (syntactic theory, pragmatics, and discourse 
understanding). 

Hock, Hans Henrich 

Director, Program in South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Professor of Linguistics. 
Sanskrit, the Classics, English as an International Language; cooperating faculty in French and 
Germanic Languages and Literatures; member, Russian and East European Studies Center, and 
Program in South and West Asian Studies (general historical linguistics, Indo-European, 
historical and synchronic Sanskrit studies, Old English syntax, prosody, and syntax). 

Kachru, Braj B. 

Director and Professor, The Center for Advanced Study and LAS Jubilee Professor of 
Linguistics, Education, English as an International Language, and Comparative Literature, 
(sociolinguistics, world Englishes, multilingualism, language, and ideology). 

Kachru, Yamuna 

Professor of Linguistics, (syntax, semantics and pragmatics of South Asian languages, 
especially Hindi, Hindi literature, applied linguistics, discourse analysis, crosscultural speech 
acts, and contrastive rhetoric). 



Kim, Chin- Woo 

Professor of Linguistics, Korean, Speech and Hearing Sciences, and English as an 
International Language, (phonetics, phonology, morphology, Korean linguistics, and stylistics). 

Lasersohn, Peter 

Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Beckman Institute, (semantics, pragmatics, and 
mathematical linguistics). 

Maclay, Howard S. 

Professor of Linguistics, English as an International Language, and Education; Research 
Professor in the Institute of Communications Research; affiliate in Department of Anthropology, 
(psycholinguistics and applied linguistics). 

Morgan, Jerry L. 

Professor and Head of Linguistics, Beckman Institute, (syntax, pragmatics, morphology, 
computational linguistics, natural language processing, and Albanian). 

Pandharipande, Rajeshwari 

Professor of Religious Studies, Linguistics, and Comparative Literature, (Hindi language 
and literature, language of religion, syntax/semantics of Sanskrit, Hindi, and Marathi, 
sociolinguistics, Asian mythology, and Hinduism). 

Silverman, Daniel 

Assistant Professor of Linguistics, (phonology, alternation, markedness, (paleo-) 
phonetics, and psychoacoustics). 

Yoon, James 

Associate Professor of Linguistics and Korean, (syntax, morphology, and Korean, and 
Japanese linguistics). 



Emeritus Faculty 

Antonsen, Elmer H. 

Professor Emeritus of Linguistics and Germanic Languages, (1 August 1996), (historical, 
comparative and synchronic Germanic linguistics, runic inscriptions, phonology, morphology, 
and orthographies). 



Blaylock, W. Curtis 

Professor Emeritus, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, (Romance linguistics). 

Dawson, Clayton 

Professor Emeritus of Slavic Languages and Literature, (Slavic linguistics and Old 
Church Slavic lexicon). 



Jenkins, Frederick 

Associate Professor Emeritus, French, (all aspects of contemporary French language). 

Kachru, Yamuna 

Professor Emerita of Linguistics, (20 August 1998), (syntax, semantics and pragmatics of 
South Asian languages, especially Hindi, Hindi literature, applied linguistics, discourse analysis, 
crosscultural speech acts, and contrastive rhetoric). 

Kisseberth, Charles W. 

Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, (phonology and tonology). 

Kramarae, Cheris 

Professor, Emerita of Speech Communication, (sociolinguistics, discourse, com- 
munication and gender, and language and power). 

Zgusta, Ladislav 

Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, Classics, and Center for Advanced Study 
(lexicography, and Indo-European linguistics). 



Leaves of Absence 

Chin-Chuan Cheng, Fall 97 - Spring 98 
James Yoon, Fall 97 

Appointments Outside the Department 

Hans Henrich Hock 

Associate Director, Program in South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 

Braj B. Kachru 

Professor and Director, Center for Advanced Study 



Cooperating Faculty 

(Adjunct appointments in the Department of Linguistics) 

Alfonso, Peter J. 

Professor and Head, Speech and Hearing Science, (speech physiology and 
electromagnetic articulography). 

Baron, Dennis E. 

Professor, English, (history of English, language attitudes, policy, and reform, language 
and gender, and literacy). 



Bouton, Lawrence 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language, (pedagogical grammar, 
American culture, and pragmatics). 

Browne, Gerald 

Professor, Classics, (Coptic and Old Nubian studies). 

Cowan, J. Ronayne 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language, (psycholinguistics, and 
reading in first and second languages). 

Dell, Gary 

Professor, Psychology, (psycholinguistics). 

Dickerson, Wayne 

Professor, English as an International Language, (phonology, orthography, and teaching 
ESL pronunciation). 

Fisher, Cynthia 

Associate Professor, Psychology, (first language acquisition). 

Garnsey, Susan 

Assistant Professor, Psychology, (psycholinguistics). 

Gladney, Frank Y. 

Associate Professor, Slavic Languages and Literatures, (phonology, accentuation, 
morphology, syntax, and lexicography of Russian, Czech, and Polish). 

Gonzo, Susan 

Assistant Professor and Associate Provost, English as an International Language, (second 
language acquisition, immigrant languages, and first language attrition). 

Hart, Robert 

Assistant Professor, Language Learning Laboratory, (computer-based language 
instruction, and computational linguistics). 

Hualde, Jose Ignacio 

Associate Professor, Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese, (phonology, Romance linguistics, 
and Basque linguistics). 

Hueting, Gail 

Associate Professor, Library Administration, (Linguistics librarian). 

Kibbee, Douglas A. 

Associate Professor, French, (history of linguistics). 



Kuehn, David 

Professor, Speech and Hearing Science, (speech anatomy and physiology). 

Lehman, F. K. 

Professor, Anthropology, (Southeast Asia, Tibeto-Burman, Tai, cognition, and syntax). 

Mack, Molly 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language, (bilingualism, 
neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, phonetics, and speech perception). 

Markee, Numa P. 

Associate Professor, English as an International Language, (English for special 
purposes/communicative language teaching, language policy, and language planning). 

Packard, Jerome 

Associate Professor, East Asian and Pacific Studies, (Chinese linguistics, 
psycholinguistics, and neurolinguistics). 

Pitard, Wayne T. 

Associate Professor, Religious Studies, (Ugaritic and Biblical Hebrew). 

Schwink, Fred W. 

Assistant Professor, Germanic Languages and Literature, (historical Germanic 
linguistics). 

Yamashita, Hiroko Y. 

Assistant Professor East Asian Languages and Culture, (psycholinguistics and sentence 
processing). 



Lecturers 
Donchin, Rina 

Coordinator, Hebrew Program, (Hebrew language and literature and teaching 
methodology). 



Visiting Faculty 
Lowenberg, Peter 

Associate Professor (San Jose State University) 



Teaching Associates 

Bhagwat, Manisha (Hindi) 

Purkhosrow, Khosrow (Persian) 

Weinberger-Rotman, Marganit (Hebrew) 



Teaching Assistants 



Alghazo, Manal (Arabic) 
Amir, Keren (Hebrew) 
Baker, Wendy (Ling. 225) 
Baxter, David (Ling. 200) 
Elsaadany, Kamel (Arabic) 
Frenck, Susan (Ling. 200) 
Gurevich, Naomi (Hebrew) 



Gouzou, Fatoumata (Bamana) 
Hegelheimer, Belinda (Bamana) 
Jha, Girish (Hindi) 
Kumar, Avatans (Hindi) 
Mulumba, Leon (Lingala) 
N'gom, Fallou (Wolof) 



Nkusu, Mwanza (Lingala) 
Ntarangwi, M. (Swahili) 
Shams, Salwa (Arabic) 
Sukumane, Joyce (Zulu) 
Suzuki, Yasuko (Sanskrit) 
Yambi, J. (Swahili) 



Graduate Assistants 



Ahn, Mee-Jin (Kahane Reading Room) 

Chen, Po-Nien (C-C. Cheng) 

Chen, Shu-Fen (Kahane Reading Room) 

Derhemi, Eda (J. Morgan) 

Griffith, Jennifer (SLS Assistant) 

Gurevich, Naomi (Linguistic Institute) 

Hartkemeyer, Dale (L. Zgusta) 

Hsieh, Guey-Jin (C-C. Cheng) 

Iskarous, Khalil (J. Cole) 

Jo, Jung-Min (Kahane Reading Room) 



Jung, Kyu-Tae (Kahane Reading Room) 
Koga, Hiroki (Kahane Reading Room) 
Kuo, Shiun-Zu (C-C. Cheng) 
Lee, Joo-Kyeong (Phonetics Lab) 
Fukada-Karlin, Atusko (Seminar) 
Maynard, Kelly (Linguistic Institute) 
Min, Su Jung (Y. Kachru) 
Miner, Edward (African Languages) 
Rhee, Seok-Chae (Phonetics Lab) 
Smiljanic, Rajka, (Linguistic Institute) 



Secretarial Staff 

Creek, Beth: Administrative Secretary Drake, Cathy: Staff Secretary 

Homolatsch, Tassilo: Receptionist 



Honors and Recognition 

Incomplete List of Teachers Ranked as Excellent by their Students 



Fall 1997 (Voted during Spring 1997 semester) 



Alghazo, Manal 
Baker, Wendy 
Davidson, Fred 
Donchin, Rina 
Elsaadany, Kamel 
Frenck, Susan 



Fujii, Seiko 
Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko 
Hara-Shamberg, Kazue 
Kachru, Braj 
Kumar, Avatans 
Mack, Molly 



Makino, Rieko 
Min, Su Jung 
Pandey, A. 
Yambi, Josephine 
Yoshimura, Mayuko 



Spring 1998 (Voted during Fall 1997 semester) 



Baker, Wendy 
Butler, Hiroko 
Davidson, Fred 
Dickerson, Wayne 
Donchin, Rina 
Elsaddany, Kamel 
Frenck, Susan 



Goldberg, Adele 
Green, Georgia 
Jha, Girish 
Lowenberg, Peter 
Min, Su Jung 
Mack, Molly 
N'gom, Fallou 



Shams, Salwa 
Smiljanic, Rajka 
Tagliavia, Tanya 
Yambi, Josephine 
Yoshimura, Mayuko 



Fellowship Recipients 



Ahn, Mee-Jin 
Choi, Hansook 
Frenck, Susan 



Koga, Hiroki 
Lee, Joo-Kyeong 
Suzuki, Yasuko 



Departmental Awards 

Silver Jubilee Award for Outstanding Teaching Assistant in Linguistics (1997-98) 

Susan L. Frenck 

Henry R. Kahane Award for Outstanding Teaching Assistant in 
Non-Western Languages (1997-98) 

Avatans Kumar 

Outstanding Undergraduate Student for (1997-98) 

Madelena L. McClure 

Departmental Distinction 

Thomas Moore, Distinction 



Graduate Students 



Adra, Mohamed Ali 
Ahn, Jee Young 
Ahn, Mee-Jin 
Baker, Wendy 
Baxter, David 
Cha, Jong-Yul 
Chen, Shu-Fen 
Chen, Si-Qing 
Chen, Tsai-Er 
Choi, Hansook 



Hsiao, Elaine 
Iskarous, Khalil 
Ito, Kiwako 
Ito, Natsumi 
Jha, Girish 
Jo, Jung Min 
Jonsson, Lars 
Jung, Kyu Tae 
Kamachi, Kenichiro 
Kim, Eun-Joo 



Motohashi, Rieko 
Miner, Edward 
Min, Su Jung 
Nahm, Woo-Hyounj 
N'gom, Fallou 
Nollett, Angela 
Rhee, Seok-Chae 
Sethuraman, Nitya 
Shams, Salwa 
Smiljanic, Rajka 



Chung, Yu-Sun 
Donnelly, Simon 
Elsaadany, Kamel A. 
Frenck, Susan L. 
Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko 
Good, Robert 
Griffith, Jennifer 
Gurevich, Naomi 
Hara-Shamburg, Kazue 
Hartkemeyer, Dale C. 
Holland, Amy 



Koga, Hiroki 
Kumar, Avatans 
Kuo, Shiun-Zu 
Lai, Jennifer 
Lee, Joo-Kyeong 
Lee, Kenton 
Lee, Yong-hun 
Lin, Huei-Ling 
Makino, Reiko 
Maynard, Kelly 



Undergraduate Majors 



Suzuki, Yasuko 
Tagliavia, Tanya 
Tai, Kuei-Fen 
Yambi, Josephine 
Yoshimura, Mayuko 
You, Yu-Ling 
Yunick, Stanley G. 
Zhang, Hang 
Zoure, Auguste 



Ahn, Elise 
Bernd, Julia 
Borton, Scott 
Brodsky, Ernest 
Crum, Hannah 
Daniels, Mike 
Davy, John 
Dunham, Dana 
Greninger, Davie E. 
Hanford, Aaron 



Hasler, Sarah 
Kim, Grace Eun Hye 
Lewis, Gia 
Lumford, Patty 
Mao, Tola 
Mazur, Melanie 
McClure, Madelena 
McGuire, Grant 
Moore, Thomas 
Niehus, Rebecca 



Pyles, Erich 
Song, Jackie 
Swanson, David 
Teixeria, Bianca 
Timkang, Michele 
Van der Veen, Pytsje 
Walther, Rebecca 
Wiles, Jill 

Yamamoto, Wai-Mai 
Zilic, Melissa 



Degrees Awarded 
B.A. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 



Bernd, Julia 
Fletcher, Todd 



Moore, Thomas 
Walther, Rebecca 



Chung, Yu-Sun 
Ito, Natsumi 
Jonsson, Lars 
Lee, Kenton 
Maynard, Kelly 



Good, Robert 
Homer, Molly 
Honegger, Mark 



M.A. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 

Motohashi, Rieko 
Shams, Salwa 
Smiljanic, Rajka 
Tai, Kuei-Fen 
Tu, Shang-Fen 

Ph.D. Degrees Conferred in Linguistics 

Lin, Huei-Ling 
Min, Su Jung 
Pandey, Anita 



Jung, Kyu Tae Pandey, Anjali 

Kovoch, EdwarD Rhee, Seok-Chae 

Kutryb, Carol You, Yu-Ling 



Ph.D. Dissertation Abstracts 

Good, Robert 

Strategies in the Writing of Chinese Characters by Intermediate and Advanced 

Students of Chinese as a Foreign Languages 

Jerome Packard, Advisor 

13 August 1998 

The duel-route model of spelling has occupied a central position in discussions of 
theories of spelling alphabetic languages. In such a model positing a direct route and an indirect 
or assembled route mediated by phonology adequate to explain the writing of Chinese characters 
by students of Chinese as a foreign language? More particularly, is there evidence of more than 
one assembled strategy, for example, graphic and semantic, as well as phonological? In addition, 
is there evidence that whatever strategies are employed by CFL learners change as skill 
increases? This study looks at the writing of characters by five levels of low intermediate to 
advanced students (i.e., end of second year college-level Mandarin to fourth year) to answer this 
question. Subjects completed one or more of five tasks: (1) A comprehensive spelling test of 
100 characters selected from the 1000 most frequent characters in a specific character list. 
Subjects wrote the character for one romanized syllable presented in a short phrase with 
accompanying English gloss. (2) Essay writing. (3) Follow-up rewriting of incorrectly written 
characters from the essays. (4) Phonologically plausible pseudo-character generation. (5) 
Semantically plausible pseudo-character generation. 

An analysis of the knowledge errors made by subjects (as opposed to performance errors 
or slips of the pen) is consistent with a view that there is more than one assembled strategy. 
Examination of the use of the graphic and phonological strategies over the five levels suggests 
that higher level students use more graphic strategies than lower level students. In contrast, the 
phonological strategy appears to be equally available to all levels of students in the writing of 
real characters suggesting that this skill is not affected by studying Chinese. However, in the 
creation of pseudo-characters higher level students use more appropriate phonetic components in 
the creations than lower level students. 

A technique for distinguishing between performance-based slips of the pen and 
competence-based knowledge errors is given. Implications for pedagogy and areas of future 
research are also discussed. 



10 



Homer, Molly 

The Role of Contrast in Nasal Harmony 

Jennifer Cole, Advisor 

21 February 1996 

This dissertation proposes a set-based model of contrast in sound systems, heretofore 
referred to as the Categorization Model. Its use of sets to describe the relations between 
elements in a sound system allows the Categorization Model to provide a direct characterization 
of contrast preservation, the necessity of which is demonstrated by certain contrast preservation 
driven phonological phenomena. Specifically, it is argued that when segments resist nasal 
harmony, either by blocking harmony or remaining transparent, they do so in order to avoid 
neutralization of contrast. Therefore a satisfactory analysis of nasal harmony resistance must 
refer directly to contrast preservation. 

The Categorization Model follows Trubetzkoy (1939) (and more recently Flemming 
(1995) and Steriade (to appear) in recognizing that contrast is a systemic notion. In doing, so, it 
departs from current feature based representations which treat contrast as a characteristic of 
individual elements, for example of feature specifications. This dissertation maintains that it is 
the presence in a system of two segments which differ with respect to a feature that makes it 
"contrastive". Hence, the Categorization Model uses set membership to directly convey the 
contrastive relations between elements in a system, while features serve only as convenient 
labels for sets. However, not every phonologically relevant relation between elements in a sound 
system is contrastive. For this reason the Categorization Model proposes that the elements of a 
sound system are simultaneously organized by two types of sets: the functional sets encode the 
contrastive relations, while the physical sets encode the purely phonetic relations. The phonetic 
distinction between two sound units can only differentiate morphemes if those two units are in 
positions where they will be compared. The Categorization Model recognizes this fact by 
including positional information in the functional categorization of sound systems. 

By providing a direct characterization of contrast preservation, the Categorization Model 
allows for a more unified account of nasal harmony resistance. While not ruling out 
neutralization altogether, this dissertation argues that were nasal harmony allowed to neutralize 
contrast, the destructive impact on contrastive systems would be devastating. 

Honegger, Mark 

The Semantic Basis for Subject/Object Asymmetries in English 

Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 

19 May 1997 

(Abstract in June 96 - August 97 Newsletter) 



11 



Jung, Kyu Tae 

Contact and Convergence of English in Korea 

Braj B. Kachru, Advisor 

11 May 1998 

The major issue of this dissertation is to examine the multifaceted impact of the 
introduction of English in Korea. The impact of the English language on Korean at various 
linguistic levels has been studied by many scholars. There are, however, aspects of the contact 
and convergence between English and Korean that remain to be explored. This study attempts to 
examine some of the issues raised by language contact and convergence by conducting empirical 
research. The research involves a study of three different genres - print advertising, soap operas 
on television, and newspaper. The primary motivation for the choice of three genres is that each 
genre shows a different aspect of the use of English in Korea. For example, print advertising and 
soap operas show the impact of English on the Korean language and illustrate the process of 
"Englishization" of Korean whereas, the print media show the influence of Korean on English 
and illustrate "nativization" of English in Korea. 

In terms of levels of linguistic analysis, each genre differs from the other. First, the focus 
of the advertising study is on loanwords and their phonological and morpho-syntactic aspects. 
The study of argues for the necessity of bringing in the sociolinguistic dimension in 
understanding phonological variation in loanwords. The advising study also discusses the 
relation between writing systems and their functions. Second, the focus of the study of soap 
opera is code alteration in which proposed universal constraints are evaluated against the data 
collected from soap operas. Finally, English newspaper genre shows the difference in the usage 
of English in Korean newspapers through the study of some model verbs, the prepositions, "in" 
and "at," and lexical creativity. 

The methodology in this dissertation is mainly empirical. Frequency counts of English 
items are conducted to show the use of English in Korean advertising as well as the difference 
among varieties of Englishes. For the analysis of English newspaper corpus, a concordance 
program has been used. The merit of using computer in linguistic analysis is its accuracy and 
speed. The recent development of World Wide Web provides another source to download and to 
analyze specific files faster than the conventional way of typing in the data. The attempt to 
analyze the usage of English in Korean through concordance program is also represents a new 
methodology in the context of Korean. 

The importance of this study is, first Koreans often use English differently from users of 
other varieties, although it is too early to argue that Koreans have their own variety of English. 
This study should provide an important basis for future research in this area. Second, it shows 
how to incorporate computer technology in studying world Englishes. 



12 



Kovach, Edward Glenn 

Finite-State Morphological Parsing Using Register Vector 

Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 

13 May 1993 

The Kimmo morphological parser utilizes finite-state architecture to implement the 
morphosyntax and to simulate phonological rules of words. The finite-state architecture allows 
Kimmo to parse words rapidly. This architecture also greatly limits Kimmo' s abilities to 
effectively parse words which contain discontinuous co-occurrence restrictions, 
nonconcatenative Semitic morphemes, portmanteau morphemes, or morphosyntactic properties 
determined by phonological variations. 

Dr. Glenn Blank developed a syntactic parser, Register Vector Grammars (RVG), which 
are an implementation of Safe Petri Net. As with other Safe Petri Nets, RVGs are a type of 
Finite-State Automata with limited information passing capabilities. These capabilities enable 
RVGs to parse English sentences in linear time using finite-state grammars. 

The Register Vector Grammar Morphological parser (RVGMPP uses RVGs to 
implement its morphosyntactic component. This RVG Component, combined with Kimmo 
Phonological rules, enables the RVGMP to better analyze data which pose serious problems for 
Kimmo. These data include discontinuous co-occurrence restrictions in English, Latin, and 
Akkadian; nonconcatenative, Akkadian morphemes; properties with phonological variations in 
Latin. 

Although the RVGMP can parse some data which Kimmo cannot parse, the RVGMP is 
slower on average than Kimmo. Poor program design is responsible for this slow time. A 
revised program design, based in part on a new design for RVG, is proposed. Since the 
redesigned RVGs have doubled their parsing speed, similar time gains are expected with the new 
implementation of the RVGMP. With these time gains, the RVGMP would parse all the data 
more quickly than Kimmo. 

Kutryb, Carol Elizabeth 

Differences Between Full and Reduced Relative Clauses 

Susan Garnsey, Advisor 

7 August 1997 

Full and reduced relative clauses are frequently used in experiments on ambiguity 
resolution and are the basis for some important conclusions about normal sentence 
comprehension processes. A study of naturally occurring full and reduced relatives found that 
many previous assumptions about these constructions are false. Reduced relatives are assumed 
to be more difficult than full relatives, but they actually greatly outnumber full relatives in 
natural text. Reduced relatives are thought to always cause processing difficulty, but nearly all 
of the naturally occurring reduced relatives had one or more properties (inanimate head nouns 
and high participle preference verbs) that have been shown to ease their difficulty. Finally, full 
relatives are used as an unambiguous control for reduced relatives, when they are actually much 
less typical and show no indication that their primary use is to avoid ambiguity. 



13 



These false assumptions have been made based on the type of reduced relative that is 
typically used (and typically causes difficulty) in ambiguity resolution studies. Relatives of this 
type were almost non-existent in the natural text. These finding have important implication for 
studies of ambiguity resolution because they show that many studies of supposedly normal 
sentence comprehension have been based on very atypical sentences. 

In addition, although full and reduced relatives are assumed to be equivalent except for 
the presence or absence of ambiguity, several probe recognition studies found that words from 
full relatives were consistently remembered better than words from reduced relatives, indicating 
that full relatives are pragmatically more prominent than reduced relatives. 

When memory was tested immediately after sentence presentation, there was no 
indication that clause structure affected memory, in contrast to many previous studies. These 
findings show that previous claims about the importance of clause structure in processing must 
be limited, since they did not generalize to the center-embedded clauses tested here. The 
findings also raise the possibility that other efforts may have been attributed to clause structure in 
previous experiments. 

Lin, Huei-Ling 

The Syntax-Morphology Interface of Verb -Complement Compounds in Mandarin Chinese 

James Yoon, Advisor 
17 March 1998 

Whether word formation solely occurs in the lexicon has been an issue of lively debate. 
Through the discussion of the formation of verb-complement compounds in Mandarin Chinese, 
this thesis supports the view on parallel morphology that word formation takes place in the 
lexicon as well as in syntax. This thesis focuses on the formation of verb-complement 
compounds for the reason that they demonstrate complex thematic relations between the 
elements that make up the compounds and their arguments. The three types of verb-complement 
compounds under discussion are resultative compounds, causative compounds, and directional 
compounds. 

These three types of verb-complement compounds are discussed in this thesis in order to 
demonstrate that word formation takes place in at least two grammatical components, lexicon 
and syntax, while obeying the principles of morphology (e.g., morphological integrity). The 
patterns, the semantic relations, and the syntactic behaviors of these three types of compounds 
are closely examined to determine if there are systematic differences between unlike groups of 
compounds, to identify what factors contribute to the differences, and to best account for these 
differences. 

This thesis pursues a modular analysis of verb-complement compounds in Mandarin 
Chinese. As the evidence indicates, a syntactic or lexical analysis is proposed for different types 
of compounds. As a result, this analysis can better account for the individual properties of each 
type of compound. This approach differs from previous analyses in that all of the previous 
analyses propose a uniform derivation, syntactic or lexical, for every type of compound. 



14 



Min, Su Jung 

Constructing Meaning: A Critical Linguistic Perspective on News Discourse 

Yamuna Kachru, Advisor 
10 December 1997 

The goal of this study is to identify the linguistic structures and processes used for 
propagating special ideologies by examining the news reports about social and political issues in 
South Korea published in four English language newspapers, one published in South Korea, two 
in the USA, and one in England. It is argued in this study that news discourse in the mainstream 
newspapers construes ideological representations of events and situations in the world to the 
readers. Attempts to establish and maintain power through their ideological properties are made 
in news texts using linguistic devices at various levels. 

The theoretical and analytical frameworks of this study are derived from the approaches 
to critical linguistics which seek to explore the constructive and functional nature of language 
and to uncover how language works in texts to produce meanings that give rise to the ideological 
representations of people, objects and events in the world. 

The analysis of the data illustrates that news reports represent the unequal power relations 
between states and classes, render dominant ideologies in society into neutral forms, present 
particular interests as general and national interests, and thus legitimate the existing social 
structures and unequal power relations in the minds of readers. This is achieved through 
linguistic means, e.g., the coding of participant roles and processes in transitivity structures, 
macropropositions, lexical choices, thematic patterns, metaphors, and the rhetorical devices at 
the textual level in the news texts. 

The recurrent manifestation of asymmetry at the lexical, syntactic and textual levels in 
the news texts supports the claim that news media do not simply reflect the express social reality 
but serve to represent, sustain and reproduce the dominant ideologies. Therefore, this study 
leads to the conclusion that news reports on the social and political issues in South Korea in two 
major English newspapers, the New York Times and the Korea Herald, articulate and legitimate 
the dominant ideologies of each country through linguistic transformations. 

This study demonstrates that any analysis of relationship between society and language 
cannot proceed by ignoring the role of language in reflecting and thereby sustaining the existing 
social structures and unequal power relations. This study has implications for teaching critical 
language awareness to adults as well as students in and out of a school setting, and opens new 
grounds to research that would help devise strategies and methods of achieving this educational 
goal. 

Pandey, Anita 

A Linguistic Analysis of Adult Discourse 

Yamuna Kachru, Advisor 

24 June 1997 

(Abstract in June 96 - August 97 Newsletter) 



15 



Pandey, Anjali 

Articulating Prejudice: A Linguistic Perspective on Animated Movies 

Braj B. Kachru, Advisor 
8 July 1997 

(Abstract in June 96 - August 97 Newsletter) 

Rhee, Seok-Chae 

Aspects of Release and Nonrelease in Phonology 

Chin-Woo Kim, Advisor 

25 June 1998 

This dissertation investigates the mechanisms of stop release and nonrelease and their 
effects in the sound patterns of various languages. The first area of exploration is the positional 
asymmetry arising from different distributions of laryngeally-marked stops, fricatives and 
affricates. It is argued that incorporation of the notion of release and nonrelease is needed for a 
better account of the phenomenon. Empirical evidence for such a claim is presented through 
examinations of many nonreleasing languages such as Korean, Mishmi, Boro, Tod (and other 
Himalayan tribal languages), Thadou, Garo, Limbu, Mising, Cantonese, Zhanglu Kam, Thai, 
Tai-Khamti, Vietnamese, Khmer, West Tarangan, Efik, Kana, and Ibibio. Facts found in the 
above languages especially advocate that voicing is directly related to release/nonrelease, and 
further that there is interdependency between distributions of fricatives/affricates and 
release/nonrelease of the stops in the same position. The second focus of exploration is to reveal 
that stop release/nonrelease is closely bound to patterns of place assimilation. Analytic 
comparison of Korean and Hindi shows that a released stop does not lose its place feature, which 
ultimately explains directionality and occurrence vs. non-occurrence of the place assimilation in 
each language. The third area of the focus is specific strategies for stop release and nonrelease 
invoked differently in different languages. It will be claimed that nonreleasing languages listed 
above have a scheme different from that of other languages such as English, German, and 
Gujarati. Finally, it will be argued that distribution of spirants in Assamese is associated with 
release of the stops in the language. Throughout the investigation, phonetic justification will be 
sought for each phenomenon in question as an attempt to clarify the phonetics-phonology 
interface. 

You, Yu-Ling 

Interpreting Chinese Zero Anaphors within Topic Continuity 

Chin-Chuan Cheng, Advisor 

13 March 1998 

Zero anaphors are widely used in Chinese discourse, and the fact that they can play any 
grammatical role and the intended antecedents may be present in any grammatical slot makes it 
difficult to interpret zero anaphors. Thus, the recovery of the referents of zero anaphors is 
traditionally believed to rely solely on pragmatic information. It this study, the Recovery Rules 
that are based upon the requirements of coherence of texts, discourse structure and lexical 
semantics of the vocabulary such as predicates and connectives in a piece of text in question are 
proposed to recover the referents of zero anaphors in Chinese discourse within the scope of a 
topic continuity. 



16 



The notion of topic continuity is defined with special regard to Chinese discourse 
structure; it is a coherent sequence of clauses sharing the same discourse topic and subsumed 
under the same macroproposition. This notion of topic continuity is argued to be the discourse 
unit within which zero anaphors can be appropriately interpreted, i.e., the antecedents of zero 
anaphors can be correctly recovered by the Recovery Rules. These Recovery Rules are 
developed on the basis of the analysis of about 800 topic continuities selected from the first 
eighty chapters of the Chinese classic novel, Hongloumeng, and the rules are tested against 210 
topic continuities taken from the remaining forty chapters of the novel. The finding that the 
Recovery Rules accurately predict the intended referents of 95 percent of the zero anaphors 
found in the 210 topic continuities lends support to the assumptions of this study, i.e., it is 
possible to interpret Chinese zero anaphors depending on other than pragmatic information. 

The Recovery Rules are not proposed to take the place of pragmatic information but 
intended to be an alternative theory for interpreting Chinese zero anaphors. They can be applied 
in teaching Chinese as a foreign language, and in translations between Chinese and other 
languages, such as English, in which the phenomenon of zero anaphor does not exist. 



Student Progress 
Students Who Passed the Qualifying Examination 

Chung, Yu-Sun Motohashi, Rieko 

Jonsson, Lars Smiljanic, Rajka 

Maynard, Kelly Tai, Kuei-Fen 

Students Admitted to the Ph.D. Program 

(With title of obligatory research paper) 

Baker, Wendy 

Examining the Production ofL2 of Three Bilingual Speakers: A Pilot Study 

Ito, Kiwako 

A Reduction Process for Production of Stop Germinates 

Kuo, Shin Zu 

A Cross-Dialect Study of Oral Stops in Taiwanesea and Cantonese 

Nollett, Angela 

Politeness Function of the Discourse Particle OKAY 

Ph.D. Preliminary Examinations Passed 

Adra, Ali (5 March 1998) Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko (5 May 1998) 

Ahn, Mee Jin ( 1 March 1 998) Iskarous, Khalil ( 1 9 March 1 998) 

Chen, Si-Qing ( 1 6 March 1 998) Koga, Hiroki ( 1 2 December 1 997) 



17 



Ph.D. Dissertations Defended 

Donnelly, Simon (30 January 1998) Kutryb, Carol (7 August 1997) 

Good, Robert ( 1 3 August 1 998) Lin, Huei-Ling ( 1 7 March 1 998) 

Hsaio, Elaine (6 November 1997) Min, Su Jung (10 December 1997) 

Iwasaki, Yasufumi (30 January 1998) Rhee, Seok-Chae (25 June 1998) 

Jung, Eunha (17 May 1998) You, Yu-Ling (13 March 1998) 
Jung, Kyu Tae (1 1 May 1998) 

Ph.D. Dissertations in Progress 

Adra, AH 

An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Syrian Arabic Phonology 
Charles W. Kisseberth, Advisor 

Ahn, Mee Jin 

Vowel Length-Driven Syllable Weight 
Jennifer Cole, Advisor 

Baxter, David 

English Goal Infinitives 
Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Chang, Feng-Ling (Margaret) 
Implementations of a Concept/Semantics Based Lexical Database in CALL Lessons 

Chin-Chuan Cheng, Advisor 

Chen, Shu Fen 

Some Issues in the Translation of Sanskrit Buddhist Scriptures in Middle Chinese 

Hans Henrich Hock, Advisor 

Chen, Si-Qing 

A Study of Lexical Shortening in Mandarin Chinese and Its Implication for Automatic Text 

Segmentation 
Chin-Chuan Cheng, Advisor 

Cho, Jae Ohk 

Feature Interpretations and Morphology-Syntax Interface 
Jerry L. Morgan, Advisor 

Donnelly, Simon Scurr 

Aspects of Tone and Voice in Phuthi 
Jennifer Cole, Advisor 

Frenck, Susan 

Gender in Natural Conversation and Literary Discourse: A Sociolinguistic Study 

Braj B. Kachru, Advisor 



18 



Fukada-Karlin, Atsuko 

Pragmatics of Japanese Discourse Particles 
Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Hartkemeyer, Dale 

*V: An Optimality -Theoretic Examination of Vowel Deletion 
Charles W. Kisseberth, Advisor 

Hsiao, Elaine 

Metrical Aspects of Tone Domains in Bantu 
Jennifer Cole, Advisor 

Iskarous, Khalil 

Dynamic Acoustic-Articulatory Relations 
Jennifer Cole, Advisor 

Iwasaki. Yasufumi 

Three Subcategories of Nouns in Japanese 
James Yoon, Advisor 

Koga, Hiroki 

A Grammar of Multiple or Double NP-NOM Sentences in Japanese 
Peter Lasersohn, Advisor 

Lu, Wen-Ying 

Sentence-Final Particles in Modern Mandarin Chinese as Attitude Markers 

Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Mishra, Mithilesh K. 

Aspects ofMaithili Phonology 
Charles W. Kisseberth, Advisor 

Makino, Reiko 

Japanese So-Called Formal Nouns Koto and Maro 
Georgia M. Green, Advisor 

Obenaus, Gerhard 

The Disambiguating Properties of Collocations 
Chin-Chuan Cheng, Advisor 

Suzuki, Yasuko 

The Prosody and Syntax of Light Elements in West-Germanic Alliterative Verse: 

Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives on Kuhn 's Laws 

Hans Henrich Hock, Advisor 



19 



Yunick, Stanley 

Complex Genres and Language Learning: A Longitudinal Study 
Braj B. Kachru, Advisor 



Research and Service 
New Publications 

Antonsen, Elmer 

• Editor : Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 27:2 (Fall 1997): Papers in General 
Linguistics. • Review : Otto Jespersen: A linguist's life: An English translation of Otto 
Jespersen's autobiography with notes, photos and a bibliography, Ame Juul, Hans F. Nielsen, 
and J0rgen Erik Nielsen, (1995), in Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 27:2, pp. 181-191. 

Baxter, David 

• "Conjunctive semantics for adjuncts: Evidence from goal infinitives," 1997 
International Conference on HPSG in Ithaca, NY (accepted for publication in collection of 
outstanding HPSG papers (due out summer 1998)). 

Benmamoun, Elabbas 

• Spec-head agreement and overt case in Arabic. Specifiers: Minimalist Appproaches, 
Adger, etal. (eds.) Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, pp. 110-125. • Licensing of 
negative polarity in Moroccan Arabic. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. # Minimalty, 
reconstruction and RF movement, (with Joseph Aoun, USC), Linguistic Inquiry. # Agreement 
in Arabic and the PF interface. Proceedings of West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics 
(WCCFL XV). Published by the Center for the study of Language and Information, Stanford, pp. 
33-47. • Articles : [in press] (with Joseph Aoun, USC) Minimality, reconstruction and PF 
movement, Linguistic Inquiry, MIT Press. • (with Joseph Aoun, USC) Gapping, PF merger, and 
patterns of partial agreement, in Shalom Lappin and Elabbas Benmamoun (eds.), Fragments: 
Studies in Ellipsis and Gapping. Oxford University Press, pp. 170-187. # Books : [in press] 
Perspective on Arabic Linguistics XI, [co-edited with Mushira Eid, University of Utah and 
Niloofar Haeri, Johns Hopkins], John Benjamins. • Fragments: Studies in Gapping and 
Ellipsis, (co-edited with Shalom Lappin, University of London), Oxford University Press. 

Cheng, Chin-Chuan 

• Cheng, C-C, Packard, J. and Yoon, J.H.S. (eds.), Studies in Chinese linguistics, 
Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 26, No. 1/2, Department of Linguistics, University of Illinois, 
Urbana, IL, USA, (1998). • "On rule effect and dialect classification," Chinese Languages and 
Linguistics IV: Typological Studies of Languages in China, Symposium Series of the Institute of 
History and Philology, Academia Sinica Number 2, Taipei, (1997), pp. 1-20. • "Measuring 
relationship among dialects: DOC and related resources". Computational Linguistics & Chinese 



20 



Language Processing 2.1, Taipei, (1997), pp. 41-72. • "Learning words with many texts," The 
Proceedings of the First International Conference on Multimedia Language Education, Taipei, 
The Crane Publishing Co., (1998), pp. 1-12. 

Cole, Jennifer 

• [to appear] "Deconstructing metaphony," in Rivista di Linguistica. # Cole, J. and C. 
Kisseberth. "Restricting multi-level constraint evaluation: Opaque rule interaction in Yawelmani 
vowel harmony," in K. Suzuki and D. Elzinga (eds.), (1997). Proceedings of the Arizona 
Phonology Conference, pp. 18-38. • Cole J., and J. I. Hualde, "The object of lexical acquisition: 
A UR-free model," in Proceedings of the 34' h Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic 
Society. • "Integrating the phonetics and phonology of tone alignment," in M. Broe and J. 
Pierrehumber (eds.), Papers in Laboratory Phonology, V. Cambridge: Cambridge University 
Press. • [under review] "Deletion and recoverability in Klamath," (1997) [submitted] 
Linguistic Inquiry. # Cole, J. and E. Hsiao, "Gradient alignment in the analysis of Sukuma 
tone," (1997) [submitted] Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. # [in preparation] Cole, J., 
J. I. Hualde, and K. Iskarous, "An acoustic investigation of variation in Spanish spirantization, 
(1997). 

Frenck, Susan 

• [guest editor] "Symposium on linguistic creativity in LGBT discourse," World 
Englishes, 17.2 (July 1998), pp. 187-261. 

Goldberg, Adele 

• (1997), Relationships between verb and construction. In Marjolijn Verspoor and Eve 
Sweetser (eds.), Lexicon and Grammar. John Benjamins. • (1997), (with Nitya Sethuraman and 
Judith Goodman), "Using the semantics associated with syntactic frames of interpretation 
without the aid of non-linguistic context," Eve Clark (ed.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh 
Annual Child Language Research Forum. CSLI Publications. • (1997), Construction Grammar, 
in E.K. Brown and J.E. Miller (eds.). Concise Encyclopedia of Syntactic Theories. New York: 
Elsevier Science. • ( 1998), Semantic principles of predication, in Conceptual Structure, 
Discourse and Language. Jean-Pierre Koening (ed.). CSLI Publications. • Reviewer : NSF, 
Language, MIT Press, Child Development, Mouton, Oxford University Press, Journal of 
Linguistics, and Cognitive Linguistics. 

Green, Georgia 

• [in press] (co-editor with R.D. Levine) Studies in contemporary phrase structure 
grammar. Cambridge, University Press. • [in press] (with R.D. Levine) Introduction, studies in 
contemporary phrase structure grammar, R.D. Levine and G. M. Green (eds.). Cambridge 
University Press. • [in press] Head-driven phrase structure grammar. MIT Encyclopedia of 
Cognitive Science. MIT Press. • [in press] The rise and fall of generative semantics. 
(Collection of papers by Robin Lakoff), Laurel Sutton (ed.). Oxford University Press. • [in 



21 



press] Fundamentals of HPSG. Non-transformational syntax: A guide to current models, Kersti 
Borjars and Robert Borsley, (eds.). Oxford: Blackwell. • [in preparation] Modeling grammar 
growth: Universal grammar without innate principles or parameters. 

Hartkemeyer, Dale 

• "Romancing the vowels: An optimality-theoretic account of vowel loss from Vulgar 
Latin to early Western Romance." Studies in the Linguistic Sciences 27:1 (Spring 97), pp. 99- 
117. 

Hock, Hans Henrich 

• Chronology or genre? Problems in Vedic Syntax. Inside the Texts - Beyond the 
Texts: New Approaches to the Study of Vedas, ed., by Michael Witzel, pp. 103-126. Harvard 
Oriental Series, Opera Minora, 2. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, (1997). # Through a 
glass darkly: Modern "racial" interpretations vs. textual and general prehistoric evidence on arya 
and dasa/dasyu in Vedic society. Proceedings of the Conference on Aryan and non-Aryan in 

Early India, ed., by Johannes Bronkhorst and Madhav Deshpande. # Out of India? The 
Linguistic Evidence. Proceedings of the Conference on Aryan and non- Aryan in early India, ed., 
by Johannes Bronkhorst and madhav Deshpande. • Analogical change. A handbook of 
historical linguistics, Richard Janda and Brian D. Joseph, (eds.). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: 
Benjamins. • Review : Substrata versus universals in Creole genesis: Papers from the 
Amsterdam Creole workshop, (April 1985), Pieter Muysken and Norval Smith, (eds.), World 
Englishes 16: 2, pp. 304-308, (1997). 

Hualde, Jose I. 

• "Spanish l\l and related sounds: An exercise in phonemic analysis," Studies in the 
Linguistic Sciences, 27:2. Pp. 61-79, (Fall 1997). 

Kachru, Braj B. 

• "Opening borders with world Englishes: Theory in the classroom," in On JALT96: 
Crossing Borders (Keynote speech in the Proceedings of the JALT 1996 International 
Conference on Language Teaching and Learning, edited by Steve Cornwell, Peggy Rule, Toshik 
Sugino, Tokyo, (1997), pp. 10-20. •"Crossing borders: Making connection" (JALT Final 
Panel) ibid. pp. 241-243. • [in press] "Models for nonnative Englishes," in English in New 
Cultural Contexts (off print collection of selected papers). Open University Degree Program. 
Singapore Institute of Management, Singapore. • [in press] "Speech community," in Concise 
Encyclopedia of Pragmatics, edited by Jacob L. Mey. Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd. • "English 
as an Asian language" Links & Letters, no 5, (1998), pp. 89-108 (an updated version originally 
published in 1996). • "Views on Englishes," An interview, Links & Letters, no. 5, (1998), pp. 
225-241 . • [in press] "Raja Rao: Madhyama and Mantra," in Word as Mantra: The Art of Raja 
Rao, Robert L. Hardgrave, (ed.). New Delhi: Katha. • "Language in Indian society," in Ananya: 
A Portrait of India, S.N. Sridhar and Nirmal K. Matto (eds.), New York: The Association of 
Indians in America, (1998), pp. 555-585. 



22 



Kachru, Yamuna 

• "Culture and argumentative writing in world Englishes," in Michael Forman and Larry 
E. Smith (eds.), World Englishes 2000, University of Hawaii Press, (1997), pp. 48-67. 

• "Culture meaning and contrastive rhetoric in English education," in Vijay Bhatia (ed.) Special 
Issue on Discourse and Genre, in World Englishes 16.3, (1997), pp. 337-350. • "Culture, 
variation and English language education," in Steve Cornwell, Peggy Rule and Toshiko Sugino 
(eds.). On J ALT 96: Crossing Borders, The Proceedings of the JALT 1996 Conference on 
Language Teaching and Learning, Tokyo, (1997), pp. 199-210. • "Culture and communication 
in India," S.N. Sridhar and Nirmal Mattoo (eds.), Ananya, New York: The Association of 
Indians in America, pp. 645-663. • [invited/in press] "Culture, context and writing," Eli Hinkel 
(ed.), Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning, Cambridge University Press. 

# "Context, creativity and style: Indianization in Raja Rao's novels," Robert L. Hardgrave 
(ed.), Word as Mantra: The Art of Raja Rao, New Delhi: Katha. 

Kim, Chin-Woo 

• (1997a), "Theory and data in linguistics". In Festschrift for Professor Hang-Geun 
Cho, pp. 1 13-128. Chongju, Korea: Chungbuk National University Press. • (1997b), "Notes on 
teaching Korean phonology," in Committee for SAT-II Korean (ed.), Teaching Korean in the 
U.S., Los Angeles, CA: Academia Koreana. • (1997c), "The structure of phonological units in 
Han'gul," in Y-K. Kim-Renaud (ed.), The Korean Alphabet: Its history and structure, pp. 145- 
160. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. • (1997d), Optimality theory: An introduction. 
(co-authored with Sang-Buom Cheon, Cook Chung, and Young-Seok Kim), Seoul, Korea: 
Hanshin Publishers. [Linguistic Society of Korea Special Lecture Series, #3]. #(19976), 
"Phonology for the hearer," in Hwang Gye-Jung (ed.), Aesthetics of Language, pp. 341-372. 
Seoul, Korea: Kukhak-caryowon. • [to appear] (1998a), "Unrelease in Korean stops revisited" 
(with Seok-Chae Rhee), Harvard Studies in Korean Linguistics VII. # [to appear] (1998b), 
"Korean as a foreign language and as a heritage language." The Korean Language in the 2V 
Century, Seoul, Korea: The Korean Language Society. 

Lasersohn, Peter 

• "Events in the semantics of collectivizing adverbails," in Events and Grammar, S. 
Rothstein, (ed.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, (1998), pp. 273-292. # "Generalized 
distributivity operators," Linguistics and Philosophy 21.1, pp. 83-93, (1998). 

Lehman, F.K. 

• (with Kenneth Van Bik), "Notes on Lai Chin personal pronouns and overt case 
marking," Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 27:2, pp. 81-86, (Fall 1997). 

Lin, Huei-Ling 

• "The parallelism between phrasal resultatives and object-oriented resultative 
compounds," Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 27:2, pp. 87-1 12, (Fall 1997). 



23 



Mack, Molly 

• "The monolingual native speaker: Not a norm, but still a necessity," Studies in the 
Linguistic Sciences, 27:2, pp. 1 13-146, (Fall 1997). 

Min, Su Jung 

• "Constructing ideology: A critical linguistic analysis," Studies in the Linguistic 
Sciences, 27:2m pp. 147-165, (Fall 1997). 

Pandharipande, Rajeshwari 

• Book : A Grammar of Marathi. Routledge, (November 1997). •[invited chapter] 
"Hinduism: The quest for one in many," (August 97), in S.N. Sridhar, and Nirmal K. Mattoo 
(eds.) Anaya: A Portrait of India, New York: Association of Indians in America, pp. 237-278. 
• Articles/Papers : "Is genetic connection relevant in code-mixing?: The case of Sanskrit- 
Marathi code-mixing, (1997). In Rudolfo Jacobson (ed.), Code-mixing as a Worldwide 
Phenomenon, Mouton, pp. 201-220. • [invited/in press] "Mixing as method: Issues in the 
English translation of the Sanskrit texts," (1998), in The Three Circles of English, University of 
Singapore. • Bibliography : "Language of Religion: Cross-religious perspectives," part of the 
Campus Research Board Grant (1996-97). 

Silverman, Daniel 

• Book : (1997) Phasing and recoverability. Outstanding dissertations in linguistics 
series. New York: Garland. # Refereed Publications : (1997) "Laryngeal complexity in 
otomanguean vowels," Phonology 14.2, pp. 235-261. • (1997) "Tone sandhi in Comaltepec 
Chinantec," Language 73.3, pp. 473-492. • Conference Proceedings : [to appear] "English 
alveolar stops, and the nature of allophony," Proceedings of NELS 28, (1998). 

Yoon, James 

• (1997) "Coordination asymmetries," in S. Kuno et.al. eds., Harvard Studies in Korean 
Linguistics-7, Hanshin: Seoul. • [to appear] (1998) "The Dissociation between external and 
internal syntax and its implications for morphosyntactic interaction," Language Research, Seoul. 

Zgusta, Ladislav 

• Published numerous reviews of recent dictionaries of Czech, Slovak, Itzaj maya, Batad 
Ifugao, Spanish (Indo-European etymological), and reviews of other works on placenames of the 
world, Polish surnames, Bohemian microtoponyms, and the history of Spanish-language 
lexicography. • Review article : Michael Toolan (1995), Total Speech: An Integrational 
Linguistic Approach to Language, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences, 27:2, pp. 183-188, (Fall 
1997). 

Papers Read 

Baxter, David 

• "Conjunctive semantics for adjuncts: Evidence from goal infinitives," 1997 
International Conference on HPSG in Ithaca, NY. 



24 



Benmamoun, Elabbas 

# (May 1998) PF-Merger, Semitic Syntax Conference, University of Southern 
California. # (April 1998) "Language policy and its political and social dimensions: The case of 
Morocco in the colonial and post-colonial periods," The Center of African Studies, University of 
Illinois. # (February 1998) Series of lectures on Arabic syntax, University of Southern 
California. 

Chen, Shu-Fen 

# "A study of Sanskrit loanwords in Chinese," presented at the Sixth International 
Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Leiden University, The Netherlands, (19-21 June 97). 

• "Lexical translation and transliteration in the Diamond Sutra," presented at The Seventh 
Annual Meeting of the International Association of Chinese Linguistics & The Tenth North 
American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Stanford University, (26-28 June 98). 

Cheng, Chin-Chuan 

# [invited paper] "Automated determination of speaker's gender". Research Seminars 
on Experimental Phonetics and Speech Science, Department of Chinese, Translation and 
Linguistics, City University of Hong Kong, (14 November 97). # [invited paper] "The least is 
the fastest: A raw text search program for work learning". Computer Science Seminar Series 
Jointly Organized by Department of Computer Science, IEEE (HK) Computer Chapter and 
Language Information Sciences Research Centre, City University of Hong Kong, (17 November 
1997). • "CORA reading lessons on the Internet: A Chinese learner's dictionary". Chinese 
Language Teachers Association Annual Meeting, Nashville, TN, USA, (21 November 97). 

• [Keynote speech] "How many words do you know?," 1997 Linguistic Society of Hong Kong 
Annual Research Forum, University of Hong Kong, (6 December 97). # [keynote speech] 
"Focused extensive reading: computer-assisted vocabulary learning". The Fifth International 
Symposium on Chinese Language Teaching, Taipei. (27 December 97). • "Active vocabulary," 
Linguistics Seminar, University of Illinois, (19 March 98). • [invited paper] Cheng, C-C, and 
Wang, W. S-Y., "Occurrences of Chinese characters in the twenty-five histories," The Fifth 
Annual Symposium on Chinese Linguistics, Chao Yuen Ren Center for Chinese Linguistics, 
Berkeley, USA, (21-22 March 98). • [invited paper] "Studying human lexical cognition on the 
basis of the four collections of Chinese documents". Symposium on Humanities Computing, 
Academia Sinica, Taipei, (1 May 98). • "Raising Cantonese speakers' phonological awareness: 
Project on teaching Jyutping and Pinyin," Language and Information Sciences Research Centre 
& Department of Chinese, Translation and Linguistics Joint Seminar, City University of Hong 
Kong, (7 May 98). • [invited] "Use of computers in Chinese dialect studies," Special Lecture, 
Chinese Phonology Association and Chungshan University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, (13 May 98). 

# [invited paper] "Extra-linguistic data for understanding dialect mutual intelligibility," Panel 
discussion, Annual Meeting of pacific Neighborhood Consortium, Taipei, (15-18 May 98). 

# [invited paper] "Quantitative for understanding human cognition," Round Table Conference 
on Quantitative and Computational Studies on the Chinese Language, City University of Hong 
Kong, (26-27 May 98). • [invited paper] "Conference summaries," Round Table Conference on 
Quantitative and Computational Studies on the Chinese Language, City University of Hong 
Kong, (26-27 May 98). # [invited paper] "In search of perceptual distance for mutual 



25 



intelligibility calculation: Comments of conference papers," Conference on Phonetics of the 
Languages of China, City University of Hong Kong, (28-30 May 98). • Cheng, C-C, and T'sou, 
B., "Making it work like a good language teacher," Global Chinese Conference on Computers in 
Education, Chinese University of Hong Kong, (11-13 June 98). 

Cole, Jennifer 

• (July 1998) "Contrast and phonetic variation: Factors governing the continuancy of 
[\ipagamma] in Spanish and Arabic," (with J. I. Hualde and K. Iskarous), poster presentation at 
the Conference on Laboratory Phonology V, University of York. • (April 1998) "The object of 
lexical acquisition: A UR-free model," (with J. I. Hualde), Chicago Linguistic Society. 

• (March 1998) "Current issues in phonology," Mind, Brain, Language seminar, Center for 
Advanced Study, University of Illinois. •(November 1997) "Two views on phonological 
alternations," (with J. I. Hualde), Mid-Continental Workshop in Phonology, 3. • (May 1997) 
"Transitive inference in optimality theory," (with David Guest, presenter) and Gary Dell, 69 lh 
Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association. # (February 1997) "Is Spanish 
spirantization a unitary process?: Some experimental evidence," (with J. I. Hualde , presenter), 
Linguistics Symposium on Romance Languages 27. 

Frenck, Susan 

• "Sexual orientation in language use: Couples in conversation," Twelfth Annual 
International Conference on Pragmatics and Language Learning, University of Illinois at 
Urbana-Champaign, (26-28 February 1998). • (with Su Jung Min), "Intelligibility, literature in 
Englishes, and implications for the canon and the classroom," The Twelfth Annual International 
Conference on Pragmatics and Language Learning, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 
(26-28 February 1998). • "The role of the reader in the interpretability of English literature 
across cultures," Red River Conference on World Literature, North Dakota State University, (24- 
26 April 1998). 

Goldberg, Adele 

• Discussant at Argument Structure Workshop, Max Plank Institute, Nijmegen, The 
Netherlands, (25-29 June 1998). • Discussant at Whither Whorf Workshop, Northwestern 
University, sponsored by the Cognitive Science Program, (25-29 May 1998). • [invited lecture] 
"The emergence of argument structure semantics," Northwestern University, Cognitive Science 
Program, (11 April 1998). • [invited lecture] "The acquisition of the semantics of argument 
structure constructions," University of Chicago, Psychology Department, (5-6 February 1998). 

# "The emergence of the semantics of argument structure constructions," NSF sponsored 
Symposium on Cognition: Emergentist Approaches in Language, Carnegie Mellon University, 
(29 May 1997). • "On the centrality of the "periphery" for theories of acquisition," Society for 
Research in Child Development, Washington, DC, (6 April 1997). • [invited lecture] "A 
construction grammar approach to argument structure," Workshop on Construction Grammar, 
University of Oregon Linguistics Department, (24-25 February 1997). 



26 



Hartkemeyer, Dale 

• "Syncope in two dialects of Basque: An optimality-theoretic account of vowel loss." 
At 51" annual Kentucky Foreign Language Conference, University of Kentucky at Lexinton, (18 
April 98). 

Hock, Hans Henrich 

• [invited paper] Some advantages of agnosticism: Typology, philology, and the 
question of early Sanskrit/Dravidian convergence. Workshop on Typological Change: Causes 
and Courses, 13 lh International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Dusseldorf, (15 August 
1997). • [invited paper] Some problems of Sanskrit agreement: Conjoined antecedents and 
structures with numerals. International Seminar on Agreement, Delhi University, (January, 
1998). • Session Chair : International Seminar on Agreement, Delhi University, January, 1998. 
# Arabic Linguistics Conference, UIUC, (6 March 1998). • [invited paper] 'In the end is my 
Beginning: Finality, Prosody, and Change' at a conference "The rest is silence: Synchronic and 
diachronic perspectives on utterance-final phenomena," to be held at The Ohio State University, 
(September 1998). 

Kachru, Yamuna 

• "Discourse competence in world Englishes: Implications for languages of wider 
communication," paper presented at The Three Circles of English: Conference in Honor of Braj 
B. Kachru, Singapore, (17 December 1997). • "Culture and language," presentation at the 
Seminar on Mind, Brain and Language, Center for Advanced Study, University of Illinois, (4 
February 1998). 

Kim, Chin-Woo 

• "The graphic structure of the Korean script." Linguistics Seminar, Department of 
Linguistics, University of Illinois, (9 October 97). • [invited speaker] The 6 th International 
Conference on Korean Linguistics Commemorating the 600 lh Anniversary of King Sejong's 
Birth. The Korean Language Society, Seoul, Korea. "Korean as a heritage language and as a 
foreign language, (12-16 October 97). # Organized an international symposium on Literacy and 
Writing Systems in Asia, Part I. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, (1-2 May 97). # [invited 
keynote speaker] 1 l lh Biennial Conference of the International Circle of Korean Linguistics, 
Honolulu, HI. "Problems of reduplication in Korean," (13-14 July 1997). # [invited speaker] 
The 3 rd International Conference on Teaching Korean as a Foreign Language. Acakemia 
Koreana, Los Angeles, CA, (30 July - 1 August 98). 

Lasersohn, Peter 

• "Comments on the papers by Bittner and Chierchia," Conference on Cross-Linguistic 
Variation in Semantics, Cornell University, (26-27 July 1997). 

Pandharipande, Rajeshwari 

• "You are my Guru: The teacher-student relationship in the Bhagavadgita," at the 
International Getta Conference, UIUC, (14-15 September 97). •"Constructing the Hindu 
identity in the U.S," at the Meeting of the Getta Mandal of Indianapolis, (9 October 97). 



27 



• [invited paper] Annual Conference of the National Organization of the Teachers of 
Uncommonly taught Languages, Madison, WI, (October 97). • "Mixing as method: Issues in 
the English translations of the Sanskrit texts," at the International Conference "The three circles 
of English" A Conference in Honor of Professor Braj B. Kachru," National University of 
Singapore, (16-18 December 97). # [invited paper] "Yoga in the Bhagavadgita," at the Yoga 
Center of Urbana, (5 February 98). # [invited keynote] "Language as culture," at the 
International Asia Festival held in Cincinnati, OH, (4 April 98). 

Silverman, Daniel 

• (1998) "Pitch discrimination during breathy versus modal phonation," oral 
presentation at LabPhon6, York University, UK. # (1997) English Alveolar Stops, and the 
Nature of Allophony, NELS 28, Toronto, Canada. #(1997) Pitch Discrimination During 
Breathy Versus Modal Phonation (final results), ASA 134, San Diego, CA. 

Yoon, James 

• "Coordination asymmetries," invited plenary lecture at the 7 lh Harvard International 
Symposium on Korean Linguistics, Cambridge, MA, (July 97). # "Mixed categories and the 
lexical integrity principle," presented at the monthly meeting of the Korean Language and 
Information Society, Seoul, (October 97). • [invited lecture] "The dissociation between external 
and internal syntax and its implications for morphosyntactic interaction," English Department- 
Graduate College of Education Symposium, Myongji University, Seoul, (November 97). 

• "External vs. internal syntax, mixed categories and the interaction between morphology and 
syntax." Department of Linguistics seminar, U of I, (February 98), also presented at the monthly 
meeting of the Generative Grammar Circle of Korea, (May 98). # [invited commentary] papers 
on Case-Markers and Special Particles, lO* International Conference on Korean Linguistics, 
University of Hawaii, Manoa, (July 98). 

Zgusta, Ladislav 

• [invited] "The achievements and future tasks of lexicography". Copenhagen 
Symposium on Lexicography. Copenhagen, Denmark, (April 1998). 

Individual Recognition and Projects 

Benmamoun, Elabbas 

• Elected to the Board of the Arabic Linguistic Society. • Appointed Editor of the 
Series: Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics (John Benjamins). • Organized conference at the 
University of Illinois on Arabic linguistics. • Projects : Work in progress on book on 
Comparative Syntax with Focus on Arabic dialects. 

Chen, Shu-Fen 

• Dissertation Research Grant from Chiang Ching-Kuo Foundation for International 
Scholarly Exchange, (July 1997 - June 1998). The amount of $15,000 was granted for 
dissertation topic on "Some Issues in the Translation of Sanskrit Buddhist Scriptures in Middle 
Chinese." 



28 



Cheng, Chin-Chuan 

• Editor : International Review of Chinese Linguistics. • Associate Editor : Journal of 
Chinese Linguistics. • Honorary Advisor : Global Chinese Journal for Computers in Education. 

# Member : Humanities, Social Sciences and Business Studies Panel, Research Grants Council, 
Hong Kong. Advisory Board, Institute of Linguistics (Preparatory Office), Academia, Sinica, 
Taiwan. # Director : Chinese Online Reading Assistant Project, USA. # Chair : Program 
Committee, Global Chinese Conference on Computers in Education, Chinese University of Hong 
Kong, (11-13 June 98). 

Goldberg, Adele 

• Consulting Editor : Cognitive Linguistics. # Director : 1999 LSA Linguistic Institute at 
UIUC, since Fall 1997. • Organizing committee for Territories and Boundaries Conference. 

Green, Georgia 

• Grants : Toward a personally engaging Computer Companion, as co-principal 
investigator. • Yamaha Corporation, 1997-1999 (with George McConkie, Tom Huang, Jerry 
Morgan. Jim Levin, Jerry DeJong, Michelle Perry, and Yunxin Zhao). 

Hock, Hans Henrich 

• Administrative positions, etc.: Associate Director, Program in South Asian and 
Middle Eastern Studies, 1996-1997. Among other activities, organized, in cooperation with 
members of the Program, a lecture series, "India 50," and other events in recognition of India's 
50 th anniversary of independence; helped develop an India Studies fundraising initiative whose 
ultimate goal is a rotating professorship; worked on establishing an exchange program with 
Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India. Invited to be a member of the campus search 
committee for a Visiting Program Director for International Outreach. • Chair : Study Abroad 
Faculty Committee for Africa, West Asia, and South Asia, (1997-1998). ♦ Director : 1999 
Linguistics Institute of the Linguistic Society of America, to be hosted by the Department of 
Linguistics. • Member : Ad-hoc Committee of the Linguistic Society of America for the 
Society's 75' h Anniversary Celebrations. •Trustee: UIUC to the American Institute of Indian 
Studies. # Grants : Partial support from International Programs and Studies for follow-up 
negotiations on an exchange program with Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (India), 
(January 1998), and to attend the Trustees Meeting, American Institute of Indian Studies, (March 
1998). # Other Honors : Invited to be Honorary Advisor, MS University of Baroda (India) 
Linguistic Association, (1997). # Research Proposal Reviews : NEH, NSF, and UIUC Campus 
Research Board. • General Research Interest and Current Research : General historical and 
comparative linguistics (all areas), comparative and diachronic syntax of Indo-European 
languages (especially Sanskrit/Indo-Aryan, Germanic, Latin); Sanskrit linguistics (synchronic 
and diachronic, syntax, phonology, language contact, sociolinguistics; Vedic, modern spoken 
Sanskrit); convergence phenomena; clitics, prosody, and the phonology/syntax interface. 

• Current research on the prosody of intonational phrases and its effects on segmental and 
suprasegmental phonology and morphosyntax. 



29 



Kachru, Braj B. 

• Named the Sir Edward Yude Fund Visiting Professor, the Hong Kong University, 
Hong Kong (1998). • Invited as Keynote speaker, 12 lh World Congress of Applied Linguistics, 
(1999), Tokyo. # Member : Editorial Board, Language Contact (Book Series), Cambridge 
University Press, Cambridge. • [Editorial Consulting Board] Links & Letters, Universitat 
Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain. # [Organizing Committee] Symposium on Literacy and Writing 
Systemsin Asia, Commemorating the 600 Anniversary of the Birth of King Sejong of Korea, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, (1-2 May 1998). • Committee to Select the University Scholars, 
University of Illinois, Urbana, 1998. • Committee on Endowed Appointments, University of 
Illinois, Urbana, 1998. • Editorial Advisor : Asian Englishes, An International Journal of the 
Sociolinguistics of English in Asia/Pacific, Tokyo. • Chair : the George A. Miller Committee, 
the Center for Advanced Study, University of Illinois, Urbana, (1998). 

Kachru, Yamuna 

• Research Board Grant (1997-98). •[invited] Editorial Board of English in Asia, 
electronic journal published by National Institute of Education, Singapore (1998- ). • [invited] 
Keynote speaker at International Conference on South Asian Language Analysis (SALA XIX), 
York, England, (July 1998), (declined). 

Kim, Chin-Woo 

• Chair : Language and Linguistics Committee, The International Society for Korean 
Studies, Osaka, Japan. • Board Member : The William Orr Dingwall Foundation, San 
Francisco, CA. • Editorial Advisor : Chosun America (A weekly publication for Koreans 
abroad). Los Angeles, CA. 

Lasersohn, Peter 

• [invited Commentator] Conference on Cross-Linguistic Variation in Semantics, 
Cornell University, (26-27 July 1997). • Referee : Linguistics and Philosophy, Natural 
Language Semantics, Semantics and Linguistic Theory. • Thesis Committees : Hiroki Koga. 
David Baxter, Reiko Makino, and Atsuko Fukada-Karlin. • Service Committees : Admissions 
and Fellowships and Student Evaluation and Examination. • Research : Development of a 
pragmatic theory of vagueness and semantic qranularity; event-mereological semantics for 
plurality and conjunction. 

Pandharipande, Rajeshwari 

• Chaired Search Committee : for the position for Japanese Religion. Program for the 
Study of Religion and Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures. • LAS Committee on 
Humanities and Creative Arts (Fall 97 & Spring 98). • Executive Committee of South and 
Middle Eastern Studies (Fall 97 - Spring 98). • Coordinator for the Hindi program, Department 
of Linguistics (Fall 97 & Spring 98). • Organization Committee of the Getta Conference 
(September 97). • Organization Committee of the Graduate Course on Diaspora, Identity, and 
Creative Arts. Funded by the Ford Foundation and Sponsored by the International Studies 



30 



Program at UIUC (Spring 98). • Member : Asian American Studies (Fall 97). # Courses and 
Curricula Committee, Department of Linguistics (Spring 98). 

Yoon, James 

• PI, Morphological vs. Syntactic Categories (grant from Seoul National University). 

• Co-PI, Lexical Semantic Representation of Korean Based on Predicate Meaning (grant from 
the Ministry of Science and Technology, Korea). • Co-PI, Cambridge Grammar of Korean 
(project proposal under review by Cambridge University Press - grant from the Ministry of 
Culture, Korea). • [invited] to teach at the Linguistic Institute, Cornell University, Cornell 
University, (June - July 97). • Secretary : International Conference on Korean Linguistics, 96- 
98. • [Editorial Board Member] Journal of East Asian Linguistics (since 1991), Natural 
Language and Linguistic Theory (since 1990). • [Reviewer] J/K Conference, SCIL, HISKL, 
Language Research, Studies in Generative Grammar, Kluwer Academic Press, Cambridge 
University Press. 

Zgusta, Ladislav 

• Professor Emeritus. Chief research interests include the theory and practice of 
lexicography, name studies, Indo-European linguistics, and the languages of Asia Minor. 

• Serves as editor for Lexicographia Series Maior and the journal Lexicographica, and has been 
a frequent reviewer for Dictionaries, International Journal of Lexicography, Names, Kratylos, 
and American Reference Books Annual. 



Alumni News 

We are pleased again to include the following news notes from alumni and former 
colleagues. We anticipate hearing from more of you each year in order that this section will be 
one of the larger ones in the Newsletter. 

Address your notes to: 

Newsletter 

Linguistics, 4088 FLB 

707 S. Mathews 

Urbana, IL 61801 

or fax us at (217) 333-3466, or send an e-mail message to: deptling@uiuc.edu 

Downing, Laura 

• Publications : (refereed Journal articles and proceedings papers) [to appear] Prosodic 
stem, prosodic word in Bantu. In T. Alan Hall & Ursula Kleinhenz (eds.), Studies on the 
Phonological Word. Amsterdam: Benjamins, (current studies in linguistic theory). # [in press] 
Verbal reduplication in three Bantu languages. In Harry van der Hulst, Rene Kager & Wim 
Zonneveld, (eds.). The prosody-morphology interface. Cambridge University Press. • Prosodic 
misalignment and reduplication. In Geert Booij & Jaap van Marie, (eds.). Yearbook of 
Morphology (1997). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 83-120. (1998), On the 



31 



prosodic misalignment of onsetless syllables. NLLT 16, pp. 1-52. • [to appear] (Conference 
Proceedings) Morphological correspondence constraints on KiKerewe reduplication. 
Proceedings of WCCFL 16. Morphological correspondence in KiNande reduplication. 
Proceedings of BLS 23. • Books Chapters/Sections : [invited/to appear] Xhosa. [Consultant] In 
Jane Garry, (ed.). The Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages. Henry Holt & Co. 

• Reviews : (1997), Review of The lexical tonology of Kinande by Ngessimo M. Mutaka. 
Linguistics 35 (3), pp. 614-617. 0(1997), Review of Phonology and morphology of 
Kimatuumbi by David Odden. Phonology 13.3, pp. 425-432. • Papers Read : (1997), "Prosodic 
stem, prosodic word in Bantu". Conference on the Phonological Word, ZAS, Berlin, (24-26 
October 97). • "Morphological correspondence constraints on KiKerewe reduplication". 
WCCFL 16, University of Washington, Seattle, (28 February - 2 March 97). • "Morphological 
correspondence in KiNande reduplication". BLS 23, (15-17 February 97). # Professional 
Activities : [Member] Editorial Board, Phonology. • Reviewer : for Language, LI, NLLT, NSF. 
SAL. 

Kamwangamalu, Nkonko 

• Publications : (Book-length journal) (1998), (ed.), Aspects of Multilingualism in post- 
apartheid South Africa: A special issue of Multilingual, Journal of Cross-Cultural and 
Interlanguage Communication, Vol. 27, No. 2/3, Berlin & New York: Mouton. # Articles : 
(1998), We-codes, they-codes, and the codes-in-between: Identities of English and 
codeswitching in post-apartheid South Africa. In N.M. Kamwangamalu (ed.), Aspects of 
Multilingualish in post-apartheid South Africa: A special issue of Multilingual - Journal of 
Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication 17, 2/3, pp. 279-298. • (1997a), 
Multilingualism and education policy in post-apartheid South Africa. Language Problems and 
Language Planning 21, 3, pp. 234-253. • (1997b), English and transformation to multicultural 
education in post-apartheid South Africa. Journal for Language Teaching 31,3, pp. 243-252. 

• (1997c), Language frontiers, language standardization, and mother tongue education. South 
African Journal of African Languages 17, 3, pp. 88-94. • (1997d), Owning 'the other tongue': 
The case of English in Southern Africa. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 
18, 2, pp. 89-99. • (1997e), The colonial legacy and language planning in sub-Saharan Africa: 
The case of Zaire. Applied Linguistics 18:1, pp. 69-85. •(1997f), Language contact, 
codeswitching, and I-languages: Evidence from Africa. South African Journal of Linguistics 
15:2, pp. 45-51. • Papers Read : (1997a), [invited paper] "The languages of the Congo-Basin: 
A reclassification, part 1," Second International Colloquium on the harmonization and 
Standardization of African Languages for Education and Development. University of Cape 
Town, (31 October - 1 November 97). • (1997b), "The politics and markedness of 
codeswitching". 9 lh International Conference of the African Language Association of Southern 
Africa (ALASA). University of Natal, Durban, South Africa, (14-18 July 97). •(1997c), 
"Language variation in South Africa: A challenge to multicultural education". English Teachers 
Connect Conference. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, (12-14 July 
97). • (1997d), "Outcomes-based learning: Evidence from peer-tutoring". 17 lh Annual 
Conference of the South African Applied Linguistics Association (SAALA). University of 
Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, (10-11 July, 97). • (1997e), "Zulu mother tongue 
in an English-only classroom". 25 th Annual Conference of the South African Association for 



32 



Language Teaching (SAALT). University of natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, (7-9 July 
97). # (1997f), "We-codes, they-codes, and codeswitching with English in post-apartheid South 
Africa". The American Association for Applied Linguistics. Orlando, Florida, USA, (8-11 
March 97). • Recognition : Commissioned by Joshua Fishman to guest-edit a special theme 
issue of The International Journal of the Sociology of language entitled Language and Ethnicity 
in the New South Africa. 



Public Events 
Linguistics Seminar 

The Linguistics Seminar offers a weekly forum for papers presented by graduate students 
and faculty. It normally meets Thursdays at 4:00 p.m. Since the last issue of the Newsletter, the 
following papers have been read. (Inquiries about and requests for available copies should be 
directed to the authors.) 

Goldberg, Adele 

Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics 

Winding One's Way Toward Constructions 

18 September 1997 

In this talk, I will present evidence in favor of viewing grammar as an interrelated web of 
constructions, or form-meaning correspondences. The way construction illustrated by the 
following expressions will be examined as a case study; 

"[glaciers] had repeatedly nudged their way between England and Wales." 
"I knitted my way across the Atlantic" (Oxford University Press corpus) 

It will be argued that a construction is required because the overall argument structure 
and interpretation of such expressions is not plausibly attributed to any of the lexical items' 
inherent semantics. Issues of "constructional polysemy," idiomaticity, and relationships among 
constructions will also be discussed. 

Cole, Jennifer 

Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics 

Hualde, Jose I. 

Associate Professor, Spanish, Italian, & Portuguese 

Iskarous, Khalil 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics 
An Acoustic Investigation of Variation in Spanish Voiced Obstruents 

25 September 1997 

A well-known characteristic of Spanish is that the voiced obstruents /b,d,g/ have both 
continuant and noncontinuant realizations. This allophonic alternation is generally known as 
"spirantization". The goal of this study is to provide a rigorous characterization of the 
phenomenon based on acoustic analysis that establishes (1) the range of variation along a 



33 



continuum of constriction degree, (2) the frequency of occurrence for alternates with different 
degrees of constriction, and (3) factors that play a role on conditioning the degree of constriction. 
We contend that a better understanding of these matters concerning variation is a prerequisite to 
determining the stations of the stop/continuant alternation as a phonological or phonetic process. 

The stop/continuant alternation is Spanish is representative of a larger class of 
phenomena by which the "strength" of an articulation varies according to the environment in 
which it occurs. Through an investigation of Spanish /b, d, g/ allophony we hope to find out if 
there is a general pattern of fortition or lenition. 

The research reported in this presentation examines three factors in particular: the place 
of articulation of the voiced obstruent, the height of flanking vowels, and the presence of a 
preceding word boundary. To anticipate the results of our study, among these three factors, we 
find a conditioning effect of flanking vowel height for all subjects, and consistently no effect of a 
preceding word boundary. Another finding of this study is that intervocalic /b,d/g/ present a 
considerably weaker degree of constriction for some speakers. Our data suggest that this is 
variation by regional dialect. 

Kim, Chin-Woo 

Professor, Department of Linguistics 

The Origin and Graphic Principles of the Korean Script 

9 October 1997 

Hangul, the Korean script, was invented in the 15 th century by King Sejong with the help 
of his court scholars. There are some controversies surrounding the origin of the script (a pure 
creation or a borrowing from a foreign script; and if the latter, which one?) and about the graphic 
principles Sejong adopted for the new script. I will review them, and will introduce a new 
hypothesis regarding a possible model for the script shapes. I will also point out some 
inconsistencies that found their tortuous way into the system of the new script. [This year marks 
the 600 th anniversary of King Sejong's birth.] 

Benmamoun, Elabbas 

Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics 
Agreement Asymmetries and the Syntax/Morphology Interface 

16 October 1997 

Various types of dependencies involving questions, relatives, negative polarity items and 
agreement have received a uniform account within GB/Minimalist syntax. It is assumed that all 
these dependencies involve the same syntactic configuration (Spec-head) and are driven by the 
same requirement (to check features). Any asymmetries that arise are attributed to the value of 
the feature involved (Weak or Strong) which in turn determines the level of representation or the 
point in the derivation where the relevant dependency is accounted for. 

In this paper, two constructions in Arabic: (i) the Verb Subject sequence (the VSO and 
SVO orders in Arabic), and (ii) genitive constructions (the Semitic Construct State) will be 
discussed. These two constructions exhibit an important asymmetry. Features that are usually 
realized morphologically on the verb, such as number, and on the noun, such as definiteness. 



34 



may be absent in the VSO order and in the Construct State respectively. The only way to 
determine that the verb is plural or that the nominal head of the Construct State is definite is 
through their dependents: the subject and the genitive NP respectively. GB/Minimalist analyses 
of these dependencies and the asymmetries they display have relied exclusively on syntactic 
and configurational notions such as overt vs. covert Spec-head checking or expletive argument 
chains vs. argument trace chains, and on diacritics such as Weak vs. Strong features. I shall 
show the empirical and theoretical inadequacies of the syntactic accounts and propose an 
alternative morphological analysis and consider its implications for the syntax morphology 
interface. Comparisons with other languages that seem to display slightly similar asymmetries 
such as the Celtic languages and French will also be discussed. 

Perini, Mario A. 

Visiting Professor, Spanish, Italian, & Portuguese 

On the Semantics of Grammatical Gender in Portuguese 

30 October 1997 

In Portuguese certain words are marked for gender, so that some are said to be 
"feminine," and some "masculine"; these gender marks govern agreement within the noun 
phrase. Thus, we have "a casa amarela" 'the yellow house (fern.)', but "o carro amarelo" 'the 
yellow car (masc.)'. Words like "casa" 'house' and "carro" 'car' are said to have inherent gender. 

This feature of Portuguese grammar is but a particular case of a very widespread 
phenomenon, sometimes thought of as not being very interesting. I contend, however, that 
analysis of inherent gender, apart from its importance for students of the language, can throw 
some light on the way semantics and morphosyntax intertwine themselves in the grammar of a 
language. 

I show that, although the gender of a particular word is highly idiosyncratic, and can be 
classified as purely morphosyntactic ("formal") information, the fact that a word has inherent 
gender at all is a consequence of the semantics of the word in a particular context. Therefore, we 
must admit that in certain cases formal rules may depend on previous semantic information for 
their application. 

I argue that occurrences of words having inherent gender are coextensive with 
occurrences of words having a particular semantic reading, namely, referential function. This is a 
syntagmatic function, depending on context; and it stands in contrast with qualifying function. I 
suggest that this is the real opposition behind the traditional difference between "nouns" and 
"adjectives". 

Witte, Jim 

Graduate Student, Germanic Languages and Literatures 
German Particle Verb Expressions Do Not Form a Natural Class 

6 November 1997 

Language researchers commonly assume that the expressions in sentences like (la-b) 
below form a class, meaning that they share certain observable properties which distinguish them 



35 



from expressions like (2a-b) below. Underlined elements below are said to be particles or 
separable prefixes. 

Particle Verb Expressions (Also known as separable prefix verbs) 

la. Vera hammerte den Stahl flach (Uszkoreit 1987) 
Vera hammered the steel flat 

lb. Peter lernte mich gut kennen 

Peter learned me good to know 
Peter got to know me well 

Not Particle Verb Expressions 

2a. Vera hammerte den Stahl flacher als die Niederlande 
Vera hammered the steel flatter then the Netherlands 

2b. Peter horte Vera singen 
Peter heard Vera sing 

Most particle verb expressions share a common word order constraint, where the so- 
called particle must appear in clause-final position in finite main clauses. However, other kinds 
of expressions like the sentences in (2) share the same word order, so word order cannot serve as 
a distinguishing characteristic. The class of expressions which includes (la-b) and excludes (2a- 
b) above is artificial, based on factors like spelling or idiomatic semantic composition. It would 
be more useful to think about a class of expressions where one element must occur in clause- 
final position. 

Min, Su Jung 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics 

Analyzing News Discourse: A Critical Linguistic Perspective 

13 November 1997 

The aim of this study is to demonstrate that newspapers are a potent means of promoting 
ideologies that mold attitudes and value systems of a nation. This goal is achieved by analyzing 
the New York Times coverage of socio-political issue, titled "The massive labor strikes in South 
Korea." The framework adopted for the analysis is that of critical linguistics. 

Critical linguistic analysis aims at uncovering the role of language in constructing social 
identities, relationships, issues, and events. Its central concern has been to examine socio- 
politically interested nature of the texts and discourses through which social reality is constituted 
and investigate how these discourses maintain power through their ideological properties. News 
producing processes comprise selection, interpretation, and presentation of events to audiences, 
thereby constructing reality in a manner corresponding with the underlying ideological function. 
News impose a structure of values on whatever is represented, and so inevitably news produce 
meanings which construct ideological representations of social world. 



36 



It is argued in this study that news reports by the capitalist news media represent 
ideologically biased picture of events, that is, pro-government and pro-corporation/anti-labor, 
and that this representation is achieved through linguistic structures and processes at various 
levels. This study is important for creating an awareness of the constructive and functional nature 
of language within news discourse. 

Silverman, Daniel 

Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics 
Alveolar stops in American English, and the Nature ofAllophony 

20 November 1997 

The English alveolar stop contrast (lenis-fortis) involves several context-dependent 
manifestations. Word-initially we see an aspiration contrast. Syllable and word finally the lenis 
stop is typically realized as a plain voiceless (or devoiced) stop, while the fortis stop is normally 
realized with glottalization and/or unrelease, and a shorter vowel. Stressed syllable initially the 
lenis stop is voiced, while the fortis stop is voiceless aspirated. Word-internal unstressed 
initially, we observe complete or near-neutralization: both the lenis and fortis stops are tapped, 
with or without a vowel length distinction on the preceding vowel. Finally, preceding [s] there is 
no contrast between the fortis and lenis stop. In this paper I argue that the allophonic alternations 
(both here and elsewhere) may be a physical manifestation of the abstract pressure of contrast 
maintenance. Moreover, the neutralizating alternations may be a consequence of insufficient 
energy availability, which is rather uncontroversially characterizable as a physical functional 
constraint. I further show that unmarked values are typically natural values, while marked values 
are typically less natural. And these distinctions in naturalness seem to carry over to 
contextually-conditioned alternates. There thus seems to be a necessary interdependence between 
abstraction and physicality in order to properly account for patterns of alternation. In this 
presentation then, I discuss the interplay of these forces on the system of contrasts, and the 
manifold conditions under which one force wins out over the other. 

Yamashita, Hiroko 

Assistant Professor, Dept. of East Asian Languages and Cultures 
The Distribution of Scrambled Sentences in Japanese and their Theoretical Implications 

4 December 1997 

Unlike topic construction, what exactly triggers speakers/writers to produce sentences of 
noncanonical word-order ('scrambled sentences') in Japanese is not yet thoroughly investigated. 
Based on an analysis of written texts, the current study argues that scrambled sentences in 
Japanese are motivated by the efficiency of a working memory load of a speaker/writer and the 
discourse factors. 

The most common type of scrambled phrases observed in the texts are 'heavy' 
constituents, i.e., the phrases containing a long subordinate clause. I argue that the heavy phrase 
is scrambled by the speaker/writer to avoid the production of center-embedded sentences (cf. 
Hawkins, 1994). Another characteristic of scrambled constituent is a direct reference to the 
immediately preceding context. Such a characteristics is accounted for by the production and 



37 



discourse factors; starting a phrase by referring to what has just been evoked in the preceding 
discourse is not only easy from the production point of view but it also arguments the smooth 
flow of the discourse. 

The fact that 95 % of the scrambled constituents share the characteristics of heaviness 
and/or a reference to the immediately preceding context indicates that the occurrence of 
scrambled sentences in Japanese is neither uncontrolled nor a free variant of the canonical order. 
In this sense, Japanese is not a 'free' word-order language. 

Packard, Jerome 

Professor, East Asian and Pacific Studies 

An X-Bar Morphological System for Chinese and English 

11 December 1997 

In this talk I offer a set of procedures for classifying word components into four 
morphological primitives, and then a set of generative rules for combining those primitives to 
form words. 

Word component morphemes are categorized according to ( 1 ) whether the morpheme is 
free or bound, and (2) whether the morpheme is a efunctioni (grammatical) or econtenti (lexical) 
morpheme. The combination of these properties gives us four possible morpheme types, three of 
which are relevant to word formation. If a component is a content morpheme and free ([+free, - 
function]), it is a root word (or simply a ewordi; XO). If the morpheme is content and bound ([- 
free, -function]), it is a bound root (X-l). If the morpheme is bound and grammatical ([-free, 
+function]), then it is an affix. Criteria that further distinguish two subcategories of affix — word 
forming affix (XW) and grammatical affix (G) — are offered. 

The four primitives XO, X-l, XW and G are combined using two context-free word 
structure rules that allow limited embedding and recursion. Critically, it is argued that 
productivity limits on word formation are accounted for in large measure by the fact that only 
one of the morphological primitives — namely, XO — possesses the embedding and recursion 
properties. In other words, while XO, X-l, XW and G are all allowed to occur on the right of the 
expansion arrow as the output of a morphological rule, the only term allowed as input to the rule 
isXO. 

I argue that the proposed framework represents an advance over previous X-bar 
morphology proposals, and present data from English and Mandarin to demonstrate the range of 
word structures generated under this system. 

Iwasaki, Yasufumi 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics 

Three Subcategories of Nouns in Japanese 

29 January 1998 

The goal of this talk is to show that Japanese has three subcategories of nouns and that 
two of them sometimes do not project as an NP, but form a complex predicate with elements like 



38 



the copula in syntax. The three subcategories are Nominal Noun (NN), Verbal Noun (VN) and 
Adjectival Noun (AN) (Iwasaki 1997). 

NN refers to a regular noun such as "hon" (book) and "kuruma" (car). In contrast to NN, 
which is a prototypical noun, VN and AN are often said to have a dual character. VN refers to a 
noun with a verbal meaning such as "kenkyuu" (research) and "hanbai" (sale) (Martin 1975) and 
is said to have a dual character of a noun and a verb (Kageyama 1982, 1993; Tsujimura 1996). 
VN differs from NN and AN in combining with the light verb "sum" (to do). AN refers to a noun 
with an adjectival meaning such as "kenkoo" (health) and "hituyoo" (need) (Martin 1975) and is 
said to have a dual character of a noun and adjective (Kageyama 1992, Tsujimura 1996). AN 
differs from NN and VN in combining with the copula "na." 

Despite these differences, NN, VN and AN all project as an NP, and the NPs occur in 
typical NP positions like the subject position. Unlike NN, VN, and AN sometimes form a 
complex predicate with elements like the copula in syntax and behave like a verb and an 
adjective, respectively. This difference between NN one the one hand and VN and AN on the 
other will be explained on the assumption that VN and AN potentially project an argument 
structure, whereas NN does not. The number of arguments, the type of theta roles and Case 
markings of the arguments of the complex predicate with VN and AN are determined by the 
lexical properties of VN and AN involved. 

Kapanga, Andre M. 

Associate Professor of French at Illinois State University 

Ambassador, U.N. Mission for the Democratic Republic of Congo 

Discourse Strategies and Communication at U.N: The Experience of a Linguist 

5 February 1998 

With its overl80 member nations and potentially at least that many languages and 
cultures, the United Nations constitutes a veritable laboratory for the study of language in its 
social contexts for at least two primary reasons: (1) diplomacy depends crucially on the art of 
communication, and (2) the most fundamental philosophy underpinning the work of the United 
Nations is conflict-resolution through peaceful means. Hence, negotiation of meaning and 
substance are intricately intertwined. In view of these considerations, one of the most interesting 
and fascinating types of linguistic research that can be conducted at U.N. is the examination of 
the discourse strategies used by speakers from member-states as they communicate with each 
others in open forums, writing, and in face-to-face negotiations behind closed doors. 

In this lecture I will draw on my brief experience at U.N. to document and discuss 
successful and less successful discourse strategies. I will argue that successful discourse 
strategies are precisely those that observe not only the Gricean principles, but also the context of 
situation in its extended or macro-communication sense. Unsuccessful discourses are those that 
violate these constraints, and often result in prolonged conflict(s). 



39 



Gonzalvez-Garcia, Francisco 

Associate Professor, University of Almeria (Spain) 
The Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics of Complex-Transitive Complementation: A 

Constructional Approach 
12 February 1998 

In this talk we shall be basically concerned with addressing some of the most outstanding 
syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties exhibited by constructions featuring a semantically 
clausal character but lacking an overt verb form, as in (1) below: 

(1) (a) "I find this chair (to be) uncomfortable" 
(b) "I want this man (to be) dead by noon" 

More specifically, we shall attempt to demonstrate that a constructional approach to 
complementation instances of this type along the lines suggested in Goldberg (1995) is superior, 
on both descriptive and explanatory grounds, to a purely categorical or a purely semantic account 
of predicate selection in the constructions at hand here. The motivations for a constructional 
approach to this sentence type can be briefly summarized as follows: 

1. The process of morphosyntactic compression in the embedded clause after the 
omission of "be" should be best handled in terms of an interaction of the meaning and form 
properties of the syntactic encoding of the NP XP string, on the one hand, and those of the matrix 
verb in conjunction with the predicative phrase, on the other. With regard to the first meaning 
layer, we argue that the general meaning of the verbless clause (after the omission of "be") can 
be glossed as the expression of the speaker's direct, personal involvement towards what is 
encoded in the NP XP string. As for the second layer, we argue that the more specific meaning 
comes basically in two guises: (a) the speaker's personal, categorical belief or opinion (with 
predicates of opinion and judgement), and (b) the speaker's direct/strong manipulation of the 
state of affairs in the embedded clause and/or a sharp order (with causative and volitive verbs). 
Looked at in this way, predicate selection in this syntactic environment can be semantically and 
pragmatically characterized in terms of two-fold modality contrast between a categorical 
judgmental reading (knowledge or epistemic modality) and a strong manipulative interpretation 
(agent-oriented modality). 

2. From a structural point of view, the process of syntactic disintegration in the 
embedded clause after the omission of "be" gives way to a wide array of sequences displaying 
varying degrees of syntactico-semantic tie up between the NP and the XP, which cannot be 
successfully accounted for under a uniform object and object complement analysis or a small 
clause analysis. Instead, under the constructional approach invoked here, we propose a cline in 
which the degree of syntactico-semantic (or clausiness) of a given NP XP is to a large extent 
determined by the inherent form and meaning properties of the XP. 



40 



Jung, Kyu Tae 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics 

The Genre of Advertising in Korean Strategies and "Mixing " 

19 February 1998 

This presentation provides a sociolinguistic study of the genre of advertising in 
contemporary Korean. The paper is divided into the following major sections: Previous research 
in Korean advertisement: data and methodology; analysis; and the relation between writing 
systems and functions. 

The primary focus of the paper is on mixing with English in Korean advertising. The 
extensive use of English in advertising in cross-cultural contexts has been reported by several 
scholars across languages and cultures, for example, Bhatia (1992) for Hindi, Japanese, Chinese, 
French, Italian, and Spanish; Kay (1986) for Japanese; Martin (forthcoming) for French; and 
Takashi (1990, forthcoming) for Japanese. All of these studies show (a) that codemixing is a 
cross-linguistic phenomenon in advertising; (b) that one of the most popular guest languages 
used in advertising across cultures is English; and (c) that English in advertising indicates 
modernization, a scientific outlook, and language status and attitude. 

Korean advertising is not an exception to these cross-cultural tendencies. The purpose of 
this study, therefore, is to show the results of the contact and convergence of English in Korea 
through the analysis of print advertising produced in Korea. This study provides insight into 
three aspects: the formal characteristics of mixing with English; the functional range of such 
mixing; and the relation between writing systems and their functions. 

This study differs from previous research in that it focuses not only on the synchronic 
aspects of the form and functions of English but also on diachronic changes in them. It 
demonstrates that English has been used in Korean advertising since 1960s, and that certain 
functions of English in 1990's advertising were previously assigned to Chinese character (Hanja) 
words in the 1960s and 1970s. 

Yoon, James 

Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics 
External vs. Internal Syntax, Mixed Categories, and the Interaction between Morphology and 

Syntax 
26 February 98 

The syntactically relevant properties of phrases can be divided into those that concern the 
external syntax and those which characterize the internal syntax. A long-standing observation in 
syntax is that there is an element which is singularly responsible for both of these dimensions - 
the Head of a phrase. The Head determines aspects of the internal syntax of phrases through its 
subcategorization/valence specification, while the syntactic category specification of the Head 
determines the external distribution of a phrase. 

A closer look at the Head of a phrase reveals that with regard to the external syntax, it is 
the inflectional form of the Head which is relevant, while the lexeme class of the Head is all that 
matters with regard to the internal syntax (C-L Baker 1995). For example, the lexeme KEEP, 



41 



which constitutes the external syntactic context of the phrase [putting my slippers behind the 
couch], requires that its complement VP be headed by the present participle form of a verb, not 
that the head of the VP belong to a particular lexeme class. 

(1) (The puppy kept...) 

a. putting my slippers behind the couch. 

b. asking for more food. 

c. *put my slippers behind the couch. 

d. *asked for more food. 

We may say then that the external context of the phrase in question selects the 
information contributed by the inflectional affix, not the root lexeme. The fact that there are no 
syntactic contexts where a VP may occur regardless of the inflectional form of the head V lends 
credence to this way of looking at things. 

In contrast, the subcategorization of the lexeme PUT is constant across its various 
inflectional realizations, suggesting that what is relevant to the internal syntax is the lexeme class 
of the root, and not its inflectional realization. 

(2) a. putting my slippers behind the couch. 

b. puts my slippers behind the couch. 

c. (to) put my slippers behind the couch. 

The inflected word serving as the Head of a phrase is thus a dual, or "mixed," category, 
possessing one kind of information exclusively relevant to external syntax (coming from the 
inflection), and a different kind of information exclusive to internal syntax (coming from the 
root). 

In this talk, it will be argued that an explanatory account of the duality of Heads requires 
one to map a morphological word like "putting" to more than one primitive at the syntactic level 
of analysis, as assumed in recent work on functional categories. Specifically, the inflection 
realizes information coming from a functional head, while the root realizes information 
contributed by the lexical head. Lexicalist analyses of syntax that take the morphological word to 
be the sole syntactic primitive, thereby eschewing the use of functional categories, will be shown 
to face a number of empirical and conceptual problems in dealing with the duality of Heads. I 
will conclude the talk by comparing inflected words and robust mixed categories like the gerund, 
which has proved particularly difficult to analyze under lexicalist assumptions about 
morphosyntactic interaction. I will show how the syntactic perspective defended in the talk 
naturally predicts the existence of categories like the gerund crosslinguistically. 

Peter, Steve 

Ph.D. Candidate, Harvard University 
The Diachronic Syntax of Infinitival Complements in Germanic 

5 March 1998 

In this talk, I intend to explore some methodological and practical issues surrounding the 
reconstruction of a proto-syntax, considering the ramifications both for historical linguistics and 



42 



for contemporary syntactic theory. Specifically, I examine the history of infinitival complements 
from early proto-Germanic through the modern daughter languages. The talk consists of three 
sections. In the first, I outline the data underlying the investigation, including data previously 
un- or under-considered in the literature. In the second section, I consider the categorical status 
of infinitival complements in light of their diachronic development from (morphological) 
nominals to (some variety of) verbals. Finally, in the third section I explore a recent theoretical 
proposal and test it against historical evidence. 

Infinitives in the Germanic languages show a variation between a bare version and one 
with an infinitival marker (orthography altered for electronic transmission). 

( 1 ) Han maa synge Danish 

He must sing 
Er muss singen German 

ni goth ist niman hlaif barne jah wairpan hundam Gothic 
it is not good to take the children's bread and throw (it) to 
the dogs 

Ealle ic mihte feondas gefyllan, hwathre ic faste stod. 

Old English 

All I might foes smite, yet I firm stood 

(2) Han prover at synge Danish 
He tries to sing 
Er versucht zu singen German 

sat du aihtron Gothic 

he sat to beg 

'He sat for the purpose of begging.' 

an wulf wearth asend to bewerigenne that heafod Old English 

a wolf was sent to guard the head 

Some of the modern languages, such as English, Swedish, and Norwegian, allow the 
infinitive marker to be separated from the infinitive by negation and certain adverbs, the so- 
called split infinitive. What can split the infinitive appears to have changed diachronically. The 
earliest example of an infinitive split from its marker is found in Gothic. 

(3) du in aljana briggan 

to into jealousy bring 

'to bring into jealously' 

Split infinitives do not occur again until the period of Middle English. Here negation and 
direct objects intervene, rather than negation and adverbs as in the modern languages. 



43 



(4) Moche more ought they to god obey, and seme but hym alone. 
Wei lever is me lyken yow and deye Than for to any thing 
or thinke or seye That mighten you offende in any time 

A number of recent investigations (such as Thrainsson 1993, van Gelderen 1993, den 
Dikken and Zwart 1996, and Sag 1997) have explored the categorial status of infinitival 
complements in the modern languages. After a summary of these, I will investigate what effect 
consideration of diachrony, especially the rise of split infinitives, has on their main claims. 

Finally, I will explore in some detail the Split IP Parameter (SIP; Thrainsson 1996, 
Thrainsson and Bobaljik 1997), and the diachronic predictions it makes. The basics are that UG 
provides a parameter, set via evidence from overt verbal morphology, which states that a 
language has either an unsplit IP or an articulated IP. I argue that a correlation is to be drawn 
between the setting of this parameter and the presence or absence of split infinitives, which ties 
in nicely to the data from the previous sections. 

Lin, Huei-Ling 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics 

Object-Oriented Resultative Compounds in Chinese 

12 March 1998 

Resultative compounds (VI -V2) in Mandarin Chinese are composed of an event-denoting 
VI and a V2 that describes the result caused by the event denoted by VI. On the basis of the 
prediction of V2, resultative compounds can be classified into two types: subject-oriented and 
object-oriented. Subject-oriented compounds are those with V2 being predicated of the subject as 
kan-lei 'chop-tired' in (1), and object-oriented compounds are those with V2 being predicated of 
the object as kan-dao 'shop-fall' in (2). In this talk, I will focus on the formation of object- 
oriented compounds. 

(1) Zhangsan kan-lei-le shu. Subject-Oriented 
Zhangsan chop-tired-ASP tree 

'Zhangsan got tired from chopping trees.' 

(2) Zhangsan kan-dao-le shu. Object-Oriented 
Zhangsan chop-fall-ASP tree. 
'Zhangsan chopped down the trees.' 

Object-oriented compounds can occur in the BA-construction and they do not allow 
object omission as shown in (3) and (4). The syntactic requirement on the BA-construction is 
that there must be some element other than the verb in the VP (Liu 1992), and the disallowance 
of object omission is a property of object-control constructions. The fact that object-oriented 
compounds possess these two properties demands a syntactic account of their formation. 

(3) Zhangsan ba shu kan-dao-le. 
Zhangsan BA tree chop-fall-ASP 
'Zhangsan chopped down the tree.' 



44 



(4) *Zhangsan kan-dao-le. 

Zhangsan chop-fall-ASP 

'Zhangsan chopped something and it fell as a result.' 

On the basis of the thematic relations between the verbs and the arguments, a biclausal D- 
structure is proposed to be the D-structure for object-oriented resultative compounds. An object- 
oriented resultative compound is derived from a biclausal D-structure after the lower V2 
incorporates to the higher VI; the verb-incorporation is motivated by the morphological 
requirement of the perfective aspect marker -le, which is a suffix and has to attach to the verb 
denoting a bounded event. Neither VI nor V2 alone denotes a bounded event. It is VI plus V2 
that denotes a bounded event. V2 thus has to incorporate to VI so that the suffix -le can attach to 
the bounded-event- denoting verb. A syntactic analysis of object-oriented compounds as 
proposed in this paper further accounts for various aspects of syntactic behaviors of object- 
oriented compounds, such as object omission and verb reduplication. 

Cheng, Chin-Chuan 

Professor, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 

City University of Hong Kong 

Active Vocabulary 

19 March 1998 

Current unabridged English dictionaries contain more than 400,000 entries and 
comprehensive Chinese dictionaries list over 50,000 characters. Miller and Gilda (1991, "How 
Children Learn Words") state that in the United States high school graduates at age 17 normally 
have 80,000 words in their vocabulary. Crystal (1995, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the 
English Language) says that English speakers can have 31,500 to 56,250 words in their active 
vocabulary and 38,300 to 76,350 words in their passive vocabulary. I examined the basic forms 
of the words used in scores of books such as the Call of the Wild, Tom Sawyer, Beauty and the 
Beast, Dracula, Emma, Sense and Sensibility, Pride and Prejudice, and Persuasion and found that 
each author used 4,000 to 7,000 word types only. Statistics of several Chinese books by authors 
of different historical periods also show that each author employed only 3,000 to 5,000 Chinese 
characters. Thus I conclude that the number of linguistic symbols a person can actively handle is 
somewhere between 4,000 and 7,000. Implications of this view in language learning and lexical 
evolution will be discussed. 

Garnsey, Susan 

Associate Professor, Department of Psychology 
The Relative Contributions of Structural Biases and Plausibility to Sentence Comprehension in 

English 
2 April 1998 

Most of the time, we seem to understand sentences in our native language quite rapidly 
and effortlessly. It appears that we integrate each next word into a continually evolving 
interpretation virtually as soon as we hear or see it. The rapidity with which people do this is 
quite impressive, especially given the indeterminacies that often arise from the presence of 



45 



temporary ambiguities and long-distance dependencies in the input. I will describe two studies 
examining the factors that contribute to people's resolution of a particular kind of temporary 
ambiguity in English sentences. 

A sentence beginning with "The referees warned the spectators ..." could continue in 
several different ways, producing different relationships between "warned" and "spectators". In 
"The referees warned the spectators about throwing things at the players.," the spectators are the 
ones being warned, i.e. they are the direct object of the verb. In contrast, in "The referees warned 
the spectators would probably get too rowdy.," some unspecified party is warned about the 
spectators, and "spectators" is the subject of an embedded clause rather than a direct object. 
Thus, at "spectators," its relationship with the preceding verb is temporarily ambiguous. How 
people handle such ambiguities was examined in two ways. In one study, eye movements were 
monitored as people read such sentences, and in another, their brainwaves were measured as they 
read. Both studies show that people make rapid use of their knowledge about the particular verbs 
and nouns in the sentences to constrain their interpretation, supporting interactive models of 
language processing over modular ones. 

Iskarous, Khalil 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics 

Dynamic Acoustic-Articulatory Relations 

9 April 1998 

The correspondence between acoustics and articulation is one of the most fundamental 
problems in speech. Without a deep understanding of this correspondence, we understand neither 
the significance of formant patterns nor the goal of articulatory configurations. A great deal is 
currently understood about the relation between the static acoustic properties of speech segments 
and the static articulatory configurations they result from, but very little is known about the 
correspondence between articulatory movement and formant movement. The problem is that we 
do not know how tongue movement changes the acoustic properties of vocal tract cavities. A 
tube changes its resonance frequencies by shortening or lengthening, but in speech production, 
this doesn't occur. Constrictions that split the vocal tract into tubes never move intact, or even 
partially intact, from one location to another. Changes in constriction location are always 
accompanied by significant changes in constriction size. That is, the tongue changes its shape as 
it changes its position (Lindblom and Sundberg 1971). In this presentation, I will provide 
cineflurographic and ultrasound evidence for a general principle of dynamic acoustic-articulatory 
relations. In its simplest form, the principle states that articulatory movement from one segment 
to another is accomplished by the simultaneous dissolution of the constriction for the first 
segment and formation of the constriction for the second segment. Acoustically relevant 
movement is concentrated at the constrictions. Movement of points in the vocal tract between the 
constrictions in the start and end configurations are minimal and contribute very little to the 
acoustic output. This will be shown by simulation of a dynamic mathematical model of the vocal 
tract. After providing articulatory and modeling evidence for this principle of dynamic coustic- 
articulatory relations, I will show how it may deepen our understanding of coarticulation and 
segmental phonological processes. 



46 



Yunick, Stanley 

Graduate Student, University of Illinois 

Diffusive and Debating Styles in Team Problem Solving 

16 April 1998 

This study presents an analysis of 15 hours of audio-recorded data from team-problem 
solving meetings of MBA students teams at a major US university. This paper describes the 
general stages in the meetings and how variation in exchange structure critically impacts on the 
movement from stage to stage toward the solution-goal. 

Ventola (1987) examines the role of exchange structures in service transactions and finds 
that patterns of exchange correlate with stages in generic structure. This paper extends this 
analysis to examine exchange structures not only as text elements but also as tools of group 
process within the macro-genre of team problem solving. 

The general stages of problem solving move from problem definition to exploration of 
facts to genesis of potential solutions to establishing consensus to assigning final action. While a 
complete map of the flow of team problem-solving, with embedded stages and recursion, is 
complex, the progression in meetings fall between two poles: one in which progression from 
stage to stage stagnates in spiraling hypotheses (and spiraling conflict), and another where 
consensus is successfully negotiated and discussion progress to endpoint relatively quickly. 

Analysis of the data reveals that meetings at either pole are typified by different patterns 
of exchange structure. Meetings showing more progression from stage to stage showed a high 
frequency of Initiation Response Evaluation triplets contributing to arrival at decision point, 
while meetings with less progression showed long recursive strings of Challenge Response. I 
label the former pattern a 'diffusive style' and the latter pattern a 'debating style.' Choice of 
exchange structure by participants emerges as a tool for progression within the genre. 

Lee, Joo-Kyeong 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics 
A Functional Approach to American English Palatalization 

23 April 1998 

This paper proposes a functional analysis of American English palatalization, arguing 
that palatalization is a strategy for the maintenance of a maximal perceptual distance between 
stressed and unstressed syllables. Unlike palatalization processes in many languages, English 
palatalization is conditioned by a stressless context. In this paper, I point out some problems 
with previous analyses and provide a functional account of how the alternation between an 
alveolar consonant not followed by the glide 1)1 and a palatal consonant emerged in mid- 
American English dialects. I report an acoustic experiment conducted to identify the degree of 
gestural overlap within stressed versus unstressed CV syllables. Results show that overlap 
phasing of CV gestures is not significantly different between stressed and unstressed, which 
implies that CV assimilation such as palatalization should not conditioned by lexical stress. This 
is consistent with the observation that the absence of stress is not a conditioning factor for CV 
place assimilation as exemplified in many languages. 



47 



A question arises: what mechanism, other than gestural overlap, constrains palatalization 
in unstressed syllables involving an unreduced vowel in English? A salient stress contrast in 
English gives rise to a great perceptual distance between stressed and unstressed syllables. The 
perceptual distance could be effectively maintained by maximizing the slight difference in the 
degree of gestural overlap; observe that this is a cognitively-based explanation as opposed to a 
purely physiologically-based one, as contrast maintenance takes precedence over articulatory 
nature of speech. Unstressed syllables are produced in favor of articulatory ease, and the 
distance can be enhanced through j-deletion in stressed syllables, tolerating articulatory cost of 
more extreme articulation. In addition, I consider the variations like [tu/tju/tSu] based on 
functional constraints and to formalize the three kinds of optimal outputs by way of different 
rankings between the faithfulness constraints and the output constraints In conclusion, I argue 
that speech production is a process to resolve conflicting constraints between cognition and 
physiology. 

Good, Robert 

Graduate Student, Department of Linguistics 
The Writing of Chinese Characters by Intermediate and Advanced Student of Chinese as a 

Foreign Language 
30 April 1998 

When investigating the spelling of alphabetic languages, one common model that 
invariably is referred to is the dual-route model of spelling. Inspired by the similarly named 
reading model, it posits that the spelling of words can proceed either by a direct route or an 
indirect route. The direct route allows the writer to go directly from the word in the mental 
lexicon to its graphic form. The indirect route involves the mediation of a phonological 
component that makes use of phoneme-grapheme conversion rules to allow the writer to produce 
the appropriate spelling of a word. Evidence for this dichotomy has been seen the dissociation 
between the ability to write real (irregular) words on the one hand and regular and nonsense 
words on the other by different kinds of dysgraphics. Additional support is seen in the distinction 
in English between irregular words (e.g., "knight") and regular words (e.g., "bake") and the 
plausible spellings of nonsense words (e.g., /prein/ spelled as PRANE). Real words might be 
spelled exclusively by a direct route and irregular real words presumably must be so spelled, but 
nonsense words cannot be since they do not appear in the mental lexicon. They are viewed as 
supporting the notion of an indirect phonologically based assembled route. 

What light can Chinese shed on the question of the number of routes or strategies that 
might be involved in the writing of a language? The indirect route is always described in terms 
of phonology in studies of alphabetic spelling. Is there a phonological route or strategy available 
to writers of Chinese? What about a graphic route or strategy? In English, whenever two words 
are similar in pronunciation they will share some graphemes. The graphic and phonological 
information is confounded. In Chinese, it is possible for words to be homophones and share no 
graphic components. It is also possible for graphically similar characters to sound different from 
one another. This dissociation makes it possible to evaluate the need for assembled (or indirect) 
routes that are not exclusively phonological in nature. 

In the present study I look at the writing of characters by American university students 
learning Chinese and what this may tell us about the strategies or routes they use in writing. 



48 



Linguistics Club 

The Linguistics Club serves as a forum to which established scholars are invited. Since 
the last issue of the Newsletter, the following papers have been presented. (Inquiries about and 
requests for available copies should be directed to the authors.) 

Bhatia, Vijay 

City University of Hong Kong 

Generic Description: A Reflection of Reality or a Convenient Fiction ? 

22 October 1997 

The nature of genre description within applied genre analysis can be seen from two 
seemingly different perspectives. On the one hand, it tends to represent and account for the 
complex realities of the world of academic and professional communication; whereas, on the 
other hand, it is also, in one of its major applications, seen as providing a pedagogically effective 
and convenient basis for the design of language teaching programmes, often situated within 
simulated contexts of classroom activities. The paper will make an attempt to understand and 
resolve the tension between these two seemingly contentious perspectives. 

Highlighting the tactical aspect of language use, the paper will discuss issues related to 
the nature and use of linguistic description in a genre-based educational enterprise. Instead of 
using generic descriptions as models for linguistic reproduction of traditional forms, as is very 
often the case in many communication-based curriculum contexts, the paper argues for its use as 
analytical resource to understand, and manipulate complex inter-generic and multicultural 
realizations of professional discourse. This will enable learners to use generic knowledge to 
respond to novel social contexts and also to create new forms of discourse to achieve pragmatic 
success as well as other powerful human agendas, rather than to reproduce pre-determined 
generic structures in response to recurring social contexts. 



Professor Vijay K. Bhatia is professor in the Department of English, City University of 
Hong Kong. His publications include "Analyzing Genre: Language Use in Professional 
Settings" (Longman 1993). He has published extensively on various aspects of genre analysis, 
ESP, and language and the professions. He has given workshops in Asia, Australia, Europe, and 
the USA, and has taught at the National University of Singapore. He has been on the Editorial 
Board of ESP Journal, RELC Journal and World Englishes. 

De Jong, Kenneth 

Indiana University 

Syllable Structuring as Temporal Modes 

9 February 1998 

One of the most robust aspects of syntagmatic phonological patterning across languages 
is a strong tendency for consonants and vowels to cross-collate into structures of roughly the size 
of a syllable. At the same time, an explicit and simple characterization of the phonetics of 
syllables has yet to be found. This study investigates the possibility that the syllable is 



49 



composed of temporally stable modes of intergestural coordination, an approach suggested by 
Tuller and Kelso (1991). Treating syllabic structure as involving temporal constraints is 
suggested by both phonological and phonetic observations. 1) The phonological literature notes 
that syllables with coda consonants tend to pattern with long vowels (forming "heavy syllables") 
in determining larger prosodic aspects of an utterances such as stress placement; onset structures 
do not pattern with long vowels. 2) Similarly in the phonetics literature, Stetson (1951) found 
that singleton coda consonants, such as in the word 'eat', will shift perceptually to onset 
consonants, such as in the word 'tea', when the syllable is repeated at fast speech rates. 

The present paper reports an experiment wherein onsets and codas were elicited in 
various rate-changing conditions (fixed rate, slow-to-fast, fast-to-slow) from 4 American English 
speakers. The data partially support Tuller and Kelso's coordinative mode model of onsets and 
codas in that 1) onsets exhibit stable voice onset time values over all speech rates, while 2) coda 
/p/ and /b/ exhibit shifts in voice onset time values to the stable values exhibited by onsets at fast 
speech rates with syllable period shorter than 250 ms. These shifts are sudden, giving rise to a 
bi-modal distribution of voice onset time values for coda tokens. In addition, speakers tend to 
lag behind the metronome at rates around which values show sudden shifts. Finally, results 
show a hysteresis of the rate at which these shifts occur; speakers tend to shift out of onset modes 
at slower rates than they shift out of coda modes. 

Further, the data show that coda configurations can also be considered stable modes. 
When occlusion duration is examined rather than voice onset time, codas are stable across rates, 
while onsets are unstable, shifting from longer values into the stable values exhibited by the 
codas. This shifting exhibits very similar (though weaker) characteristics to those of VOT's for 
codas: modality in shifting, hysteresis, and the subject lagging behind at rates where shifting 
occurs. Thus, both onset and coda structures seem to represent stable timing configurations 
which involve different types of coordination. 

Stetson, R.H. (1951). Motor Phonetics: Neerlandaises de Phonetique Experimental, 3: 1 -216. 

Amsterdam: North-Holland. 
Tuller, B., and J.A.S. Kelso (1991). The production and perception of syllable structure. Journal 

of Speech and Hearing Research, 34: 501-508. 

De Jong, Kenneth 

Indiana University 
Applying Theories of Common Speech Sounds to Uncommon Speech Sounds: the Occurrence of 

Labio- Palatalization in Twi 
10 February 1998 

Theories of phonemic inventory selection, such as Quantal Theory (QT, Stevens, 1972, 
1989) and Adaptive Dispersion Theory (ADT Lindblom, 1986; Lindblom and Maddieson, 1988; 
Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972) are built upon a comparison of predictions based on physical 
aspects of speech with the commonness of phonemic categories across a large sampling of 
languages. This paper illustrates the usefulness of these predictions for understanding the 
occurrence of particular speech sounds in particular languages as well, and in turn provides 
support for examining particular linguistic systems as a way of learning about how speech 
physics impacts linguistic patterning. 



50 



The paper presents phonological and phonetic aspects of secondary labio-palatalization in 
Twi, an Akan language of West Africa, spoken primarily in Ghana. QT and ADT predict the 
combination of labialization and palatalization to be sub-optimal. However, what are we to 
make of it's existence in languages such a Twi? 

The present paper reports the results of studying phonological and phonetic aspects of 
labio-palatalization. These analyses suggest two conclusions. 1) labialization and palatalization 
have converged because of general syllable-level structuring, and 2) the labial and palatal 
gestures have become functionally integrated because of their acoustic complementarity with 
respect to a dimension of contrast particularly relevant to consonants. Thus, QT and ADT 
considerations of acoustic functionality also can be shown to apply to uncommon sounds, if one 
bears in mind the place of the speech sound within the linguistic system of the particular 
language. 

Liljencrants, J., and B. Lindblom (1972), "Numerical simulation of vowel quality systems: the 

role of perceptual contrast, Language, 48: 329-862. 
Lindblom, B. (1986), "Phonetic unviersals in vowel systems," in J.J. Ohala, and J.J. Jaeger 

(eds.), Experimental Phonology, Orlando: Academic Press. 
Lindblom, B. and I. Maddieson (1988), "Phonetic universals in consonant systems," in L.M. 

Hyman and C.N. Li (eds.), Language, Speech and Mind, London: Routledge. 
Stevens, K.N. (1972), "The quantal nature of speech: Evidence from articulatory-acoustic data," 

in E.E. David and P.B. Denes (eds.), Human Communication: a Unified View, New 

York: McGraw-Hill. 
Stevens, K.N. (1989), "On the quantal nature of speech," Journal of Phonetics, 17: 3-4. 

Newman, Paul 

Indiana University 

The Historical Development of Double Negatives 

30 March 1998 

It is not uncommon in the languages of the word to find negation marked doubly by a 
discontinuous morpheme, as in French ne...pas. Double negative marking often results from the 
grammaticalization of an intensifying nominal or adverbial (such as French pas). In the Chadic 
language family (the best known member of which is Hausa), double negatives are quite 
widespread, with the result that one would be tempted > to reconstruct them for the ancestor 
language. It can be shown, however, that these double negatives arose independently a number 
of different times and by a variety of different means, starting with an original syntactic structure 
having a single negative marker at the end. This paper has three objectives: (1) Justify the 
morpho-syntactic reconstruction of negative marking in Proto-Chadic; (2) Exemplify the 
pathways by which double negatives developed (the common ne...pas model NOT being one of 
them!); and (3) Employ universal/typological evidence regarding negation as a key to the 
reconstruction of Proto-Chadic word order. 

Reference: Croft, William. 1991. The evolution of negation. Journal of Linguistics 27: 
1-27. 
[Subject Keywords: Reconstruction, Grammaticalization, Typology, Negation] 



51 



Co-Sponsored Events 

Each year the Department of Linguistics cooperates with other departments to bring 
noted speakers to the Campus. This year the Department co-sponsored the following Speakers: 

The Fifth National Gita Conference, 12-14 September 1997. 

Abbi, Anvita, "Fifty Years After Independence: Language, Ethnicity, and Politics in India," 14 

October 1997. 

Abdul-Raheem, Tajudeen, Lecture "The Panafricanist Movement and Globalization," 25 

November 1997. 

Dunatov, Rasio, Lecture "From Serbo-Croatian to Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and 

Montenegrin," 2 December 1997. 
Ross, John R., Lecture. 
Kapanga, Andre, Lecture, February 1998. 

The Twelfth Annual Symposium on Arabic Linguistics, 6-8 March 1998. 
Latina/Latino Studies Program Conference, 2-3 April 1998. 

Bloch, Chana, Lecture "In the Garden of Delights: Translating the Song of Songs in the 
1990's," 30 April 1998. 
SLATE 
Millercomm Lecture 



Linguistics Student Organization (LSO) 

The Linguistics Student Organization (LSO) consists of all students in the Department of 
Linguistics and is represented and coordinated by two Student Officers. Its major activities are 
bringing an outside speaker to campus each semester, coordinating Lunch Study Groups (e.g., 
phonology or historical groups) advocating for student interests, developing a sense of 
community within the department, and maintaining the LSO webpage 
(http://www.uiuc.edu/ro/Iso/). 

During the 1997-98 academic year LSO brought the following speakers: Haj Ross, 
Kenneth DeJong, and Paul Newman. LSO's bake sales, and sales from Department of 
Linguistics T-shirts, sweatshirts, and mugs, support from SORF, and the co-sponsorship of 
several department, have made the LSO a continued success. 



Departmental Publications 

Linguistics Weekly (News and Notes from the Department) is distributed each Friday, 
keeping faculty and students of the department informed of upcoming meetings, seminars, 
lectures, important deadlines, Ph.D. defenses, and announcements of interest and/or concern to 
the department. Professor Jerry L. Morgan, Head, is the editor, assisted by Tassilo Homolatsch. 



52 



Graduate Study is a guide to graduate courses, programs, and degree requirements in the 
Department of Linguistics at UIUC. It is distributed to all applicants for admission to graduate 
study in the Department. 

Undergraduate Study currently being developed, is a guide to undergraduate courses, 
programs, and degree requirements of the Department of Linguistics at UIUC. It will be 
distributed to students interested in becoming undergraduate majors in the Department. 

The Studies in the Linguistic Sciences is a journal intended as a forum for the pre- 
sentation of the latest research by faculty and students of the Department. Papers by scholars not 
associated with the University of Illinois are also considered for publication. The journal 
devotes one issue each year to specialized topics. The general editor is Elmer H. Antonsen, and 
the review editor is James Yoon. (See the last page of this Newsletter for a listing of our 
available issues and an order blank to be copied at your convenience. 



53 



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